Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 2020-01-20T14:52:31+01:00 Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality Open Journal Systems <p>This journal is published in collaboration with the German Society for Quality Research on Plant Foods and the Section Applied Botany of the German Botanical Society. It focuses on applied research in plant physiology and plant ecology, plant biotechnology, plant breeding and cultivation, phytomedicine, plant nutrition, plant stress and resistance, plant microbiology, plant analysis (including -omics techniques), and plant food chemistry.</p> Application of different analytical methods for the determination of phenols and antioxidant activity in hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) bud and sprout herbal extracts 2020-01-20T14:52:31+01:00 Federico Ferioli Elisa Giambanelli L. Filippo D'Antuono <p>Hawthorn (<em>Crataegus</em> spp., family: <em>Rosaceae</em>) extracts have been used as pharmaceutical preparations owing to positive effects on cardiovascular system. The AlCl<sub>3</sub>-based official method employed for the determination of pharmacologically active compounds was compared with other techniques such as Folin-Ciocalteau method and HPLC-DAD. Antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS radical cation assay. Methods were applied on extracts from buds and sprouts collected from common hawthorn (<em>C. monogyna</em> Jacq., C. laevigata (Poir.) DC.) located in Northeastern Italy. Phenolic content determined by AlCl<sub>3</sub>-based method, Folin-Ciocalteau method, and HPLC-DAD was in the range 23,534-27,728, 75,284-100,616 and 57,317-58,639 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> of dry matter (DM), respectively, in buds, and 17,280-19,330, 27,653-38,590, and 30,635-32,185 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> DM, respectively, in sprouts. Antioxidant activity ranged from 119,864 to 174,640 and 31,484 to 52,584 mg Trolox eq. kg<sup>-1</sup> DM in buds and sprouts, respectively. Phenolic amount and profile were significantly affected by phenological stage and sampling location. Antioxidant activity was related to flavan-3-ol and hydroxycinnamic acid amount, and to non-phenolic substances. AlCl<sub>3</sub>-based method underestimated total phenolic content owing to lack of selectivity to important phenolic classes whereas Folin-Ciocalteau method was affected by non-phenolic interfering substances. HPLC-DAD proved to be more effective in determining hawthorn phenolics.</p> 2020-01-20T13:08:14+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Author(s) Salicylic acid and proline enhance water use efficiency, antioxidant defense system and tissues' anatomy of wheat plants under field deficit irrigation stress 2019-12-19T08:58:26+01:00 Ramadan Agami Saad Alamri Taa Abd El-Mageed M.S.M. Abousekken Mohamed Hashem <p>Salicylic acid or proline enhances plant performance and encourages resistance to abiotic stress in plants. This investigation tests the influence of soaking kernels in salicylic acid (0.1 mM) or proline (10 mM) on the growth and performance of wheat plants grown in open field under full irrigation (100% of ETc) or deficit irrigation (50% of ETc). The results revealed that plants under field deficit irrigation (FDI) stress showed a decline in growth, kernel yield, relative water content, total content of chlorophylls and carotenoids, as well as negative changes in the anatomy of leaf and stem. Addition of salicylic acid or proline notably increased water use efficiency (WUE) and mitigated the stress created by FDI. Field deficit irrigation stress greatly increased electrolyte leakage, total soluble phenols, proline, and total soluble sugar contents and activities of enzymes SOD, CAT, and POX. Salicylic acid was the more efficient in mitigating FDI stress than proline. The results conclude that salicylic acid, as a growth regulator, could be used to alleviate the negative effect of limited water-availability in soil on wheat as well as improving the growth and yield of the crop.</p> 2019-12-19T08:46:23+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 The Author(s) Response surface methodology: An optimal design applied for maximum ultrasound-assisted extraction efficiency of phenolic acids from Coriandrum sativum L. 2019-12-18T13:39:54+01:00 Milena Ivanovic Maša Islamčević Razboršek Iztok Jože Košir Mitja Kolar <p>In this study, a combined three-factors-three-level Box-Behnken design with a response surface methodology was used to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of bound phenolic acids from coriander fruits. Temperature (X1, 20-60 °C), sonication time (X2, 15-45 min) and NaOH concentration (X3, 2-4 M) were studied as independent variables in order to obtain the optimal extraction conditions. For this purpose, a two-step analytical procedure was applied: first, alkaline hydrolysis and extraction under the influence of ultrasound was performed followed by a clean-up step using solid-phase extraction method. After derivatisation, the extracted phenolic acids were analysed using GC-MS. The interrelationship between the dependent and operational variables were well fitted (R2 &gt;0.90) to the quadratic term models. The results obtained in this study confirmed that studied factors had a significant influence on phenolic acids extraction recovery. In favour of maximum extraction yields, the following experimental conditions are suggested: a sonication time of 17.4 min at 35.3°C and with a NaOH concentration of 2.02 M. These results can be utilized for further isolation of active phenolic compounds from other parts of coriander plant as well as for phenolic acids study over various plant materials from the Apiaceae family.</p> 2019-12-18T11:20:57+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 The Author(s) Agro-morphological changes caused by the accumulation of lead in Corchorus olitorius, a leafy vegetable with phytoremediation properties 2019-12-19T09:53:19+01:00 Sibongokuhle Ndlovu Rajasekhar VSR Pullabhotla Nontuthuko Rosemary Ntuli <p>Lead (Pb) can enter the food chain through the consumption of contaminated plants and can cause serious health issues. However, research on how Pb accumulation affects morphology of leafy vegetables in South Africa is minimal. This study tested the effect of lead accumulation on vegetative and reproductive traits of <em>Corchorus olitorius</em>.<br>Plants were grown under varying Pb concentrations, and studied for their variation in vegetative and reproductive traits as well as Pb accumulation in leaves, stems and roots. Plants grown within allowable soil concentrations of 150 mg kg–1 Pb accumulated toxic (≥ 10 mg kg–1) Pb in all plant parts without causing any morphological defect, except for a decrease in chlorophyll content. Minor reductions in growth and yield were evident only at 900-1000 mg kg–1 concentration. Pb accumulation increased as its concentration increased in the soil, with a higher accumulation in roots in comparison to aerial parts. In conclusion, <em>C. olitorius</em> can grow and reproduce under toxic Pb levels (≥ 300 mg kg–1) and accumulate toxic amounts of Pb (≥ 10 mg kg–1) without visible morphological defects. Therefore, it is suitable for phytoremediation but unsafe for consumption when it is collected from sites prone to Pb contamination.</p> 2019-12-13T09:31:53+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 The Author(s) Salicylic acid alleviates chilling injury in cold-stored ‘Huangguan’ pear 2019-12-19T09:53:19+01:00 Yeqing Guan Chuangqi Wei Yudou Cheng Junfeng Guan <p>Chilling injury (CI) often occurs in ‘Huangguan’ pear (<em>Pyrus bretschneideri</em> Rehd) at low temperature storage, which is characterized by brown spot on the fruit surface. In this study, the ‘Huangguan’ pear fruit was soaked either with salicylic acid (SA) or distilled water (control) and subsequently stored at 0 ℃. The results showed that 5 mM and 10 mM SA treatments significantly reduced the CI index of the fruit compared with the control, but had no significant effect on fruit firmness, soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acid (TA) content. Further study on the mechanism of CI showed that 5 mM SA treatment increased the content of SA in peel, enhanced the activities of ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced the accumulation of phenols in the later stage, decreased the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) before the occurrence of CI, inhibited the expression of PPO1 and PPO5 genes in peel, and significantly down-regulated expression of LOX1 and PLD4, which code for lipoxygenase and phospholipase D, respectively. These results indicated that SA treatment increased the antioxidant capacity of the peel, inhibited the degradation of cell membrane lipids, reduced the appearance of brown spot on the fruit surface and alleviated CI during cold storage in ‘Huangguan’ pear.</p> 2019-12-13T09:24:50+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 The Author(s)