Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 2020-06-09T14:43:46+02:00 Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality Open Journal Systems <p>This journal is published in collaboration with the German Society for Quality Research on Plant Foods and the Section Applied Botany of the German Botanical Society. It focuses on applied research in plant physiology and plant ecology, plant biotechnology, plant breeding and cultivation, phytomedicine, plant nutrition, plant stress and resistance, plant microbiology, plant analysis (including -omics techniques), and plant food chemistry.</p> Effects of tea garden soil on aroma components and related gene expression in tea leaves 2020-06-09T14:43:46+02:00 Haibin Wang Xiaoting Chen Yuhua Wang Jianghua Ye Xiao-li Jia Qi Zhang Haibin He <p>In order to explore the effect of soil on the synthesis of aroma components in tea leaves, tea seedlings replanted in tea rhizosphere soil of different ages were used as research materials. Tea seedlings were replanted in soils aged 0, 4, 9, and 30 years, and after one year of growth, 34, 37, 29, and 26 substances were detected in the tea leaves, respectively, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The relative contents of terpenoids and alcohols in the tea leaves dropped from 66.40% to 44.52% and 5.21% to 2.61%, respectively, as the age of the rhizosphere soil increased. Aldehydes, esters, and nitrogen compounds increased from 3.80% to 22.36%, 1.33% to 12.02%, and 3.13% to 19.96%, respectively, as the age of the rhizosphere soil increased. Gene differential expression measured by fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that the number of nerolidol synthetase and linalool synthase genes in tea leaves increased significantly, and the terpineol synthetase, phellandrene synthase, myrcene synthetase, ocimene synthase, limonene synthetase, germacrene synthase, and farnesene synthase genes declined significantly with the increase in soil age. In summary, as the number of years tea had been planted in the soil increased, the soil significantly affected the expression of terpene synthase genes in tea leaves, and then the composition and content of aroma substances in tea leaves changed. The results provide a theoretical basis for the improvement of tea quality.</p> 2020-06-09T14:37:58+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Author(s) Sulfur but not nitrogen supply increases the ITC/Nitrile ratio in Pak Choi (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis (L.) Hanelt) 2020-05-27T11:46:07+02:00 Caroline A.C. Meschede Muna Ali Abdalla Karl H. Mühling <p>Glucosinolates (GLS) are a serendipitous class of secondary metabolites found in pak choi, a Chinese cabbage (<em>Brassica rapa</em> subsp. <em>chinensis</em> (L.) Hanelt). GLS are hydrolyzed by the enzyme myrosinase to obtain isothiocyanates (ITC), nitriles, and epithionitriles. GLS hydrolysis products (GLS-HP) are responsible for the typical flavor and odour of pak choi. Little is known about the influence of S and N interactions on pak choi GLS and their hydrolysis products (GLS-HP), especially nitriles.<br>We investigated the effect of S and N concentrations on pak choi GLS, isothiocyanates, and nitriles content under varying nitrogen (0.75 and 1.5 g N pot–1) and sulfur (0, 0.06, and 0.3 g S pot–1) supply. Increasing the S supply but not N resulted in a reciprocal increase of the total GLS. The GLS concentration decreased under S deficiency. S supply delivered an optimized GLS pattern, and substantially enhanced the synthesis of aliphatic GLS and ITC in particular. In contrast, N-rich nutrition favored the synthesis of indolic GLS and nitriles, the latter are known to have less health beneficial potential and even showed harmful effects. The study indicates, for the first time, that the ITC/nitrile ratio increases under S supply.<br>GLS and their GLS degradation products in pak choi showed a strong response to sulfur supply. Moreover, the ITC/nitrile ratio might be used as a physiological trait to compare nutritional quality and health benefits of brassica species.</p> 2020-05-27T11:42:19+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Author(s) Predicting potential sites of nine drought-tolerant native plant species in urban regions 2020-05-06T11:35:39+02:00 Zahra Karimian Azita Farashi Leila Samiei Mohammad Alizadeh <p>Drought and water scarcity are serious limiting factors for plant growth and can thus present an obstacle to development of the urban green areas in the cities in particular under climate change. Using native plants is a high-priority option to increase vegetation cover in areas facing global warming and water scarcity. In order to evaluate whether urban areas cover suitable habitats for nine native species in the east of Iran, species distribution models were developed and binary maps were generated. The model output indicated a relatively good performance. Most of the suitable habitats for the plant species are located in north, west and center of the study area. <em>Cercis griffithii</em> had the highest (46.63%) and <em>Acantholimon erinaceum</em> had the lowest (6.29%) proportion of suitable habitats among all studied species in the Khorasan region. Annual precipitation, annual mean temperature, and mean temperature of warmest quarter were the most important environmental variables in determining the potential geographic distribution for these species. Due to similar climate<br>conditions, such as low rainfall, high temperature, low relative humidity and high solar radiation particularly in the summers, our findings showed that <em>Cercis griffithii</em>, <em>Iris songarica</em> and <em>Tamarix ramosissima</em> can be utilized in the development of green areas in the studied regions. According to the output of the species distribution models, planting of <em>Acantholimon erinaceum</em>, <em>Salvia abrotanoides</em> and <em>Rosa canina</em> is not advisable in the South and Razavi Khorasan provinces.</p> 2020-05-06T10:52:53+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Author(s) Antimicrobial compounds from Athyrium sinense damage the cell membrane of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus 2020-05-06T11:35:40+02:00 Jin Cai Beibei Du Le Kang Junjun Guo <p><em>Clavibacter michiganensis</em> subsp. <em>sepedonicus</em> is a widely distributed pathogen that causes ring rot of potato. Antimicrobial activity assays demonstrated that petroleum ether extracts from <em>Athyrium sinense</em> was a fraction with strong activity against <em>C. michiganensis</em> subsp. <em>sepedonicus</em>. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical compounds in this fraction, and to investigate the antimicrobial mechanism. The dominant components were palmitic acid (25.78%), neophytadiene (13.66%), linoleic acid (8.95%), oleic acid (8.20%), phloretic acid (7.48%), methyl sinapate (6.92%), e-11-hexadecen-1-ol (6.10%), 1-hexadecanol (5.41%), and stearic acid (2.87%). Electron micrographs showed that application of the petroleum ether extracts seriously altered the morphology of <em>C. michiganensis</em> subsp. <em>sepedonicus</em>. Release of alkaline phosphatase and leakage of intracellular soluble protein confirmed that the integrity of the cell membrane was destroyed. Furthermore, ATPase activity, intracellular DNA content, and cell membrane potential were all demonstrated to be inhibited. In addition, the petroleum ether extract penetrated through the damaged cell membrane, and subsequently disrupted the cell cycle of the bacteria. We concluded that the petroleum ether fraction of ethanolic <em>Athyrium sinense</em> extracts was effective to inhibit <em>C. michiganensis</em> subsp. <em>sepedonicus</em> by damaging the cell membrane, and could be used as a natural alternative for <em>C. michiganensis</em> subsp. <em>sepedonicus</em> control.</p> 2020-05-06T10:48:06+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Author(s) Growth, development and quality of Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima fruits under two environmental tropical conditions 2020-04-03T16:07:43+02:00 Gerhard Fischer Mildred Mayorga Luz Marina Melgarejo Alfonso Parra-Coronado <p>The curuba (<em>Passiflora tripartita</em> var. <em>mollissima</em>) is an important Andean fruit in bioprospecting industries because of its pleasant taste and aroma, antioxidant potential and sedative action. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of curuba plants and the physicochemical characteristics of fruits under two environmental tropical altitudinal conditions. Crops were established in a low zone (2,006 m.a.s.l.) and a high zone (2,498 m.a.s.l.) in the municipality of Pasca (Cundinamarca, Colombia). Phenological monitoring was carried out in the principal growth stages. The weight, length, diameter, color, firmness, pH, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and organic acid content were measured in the fruits. Climatic parameters were monitored during the crop cycle, and base temperatures and thermal times were estimated. The temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were the climatic factors that had the greatest effect on plant development. The base temperatures of growth of the primary branches, floral buds and fruits were 4.3°C, 3.1°C and 0.01°C, respectively. In the lower zone, the plants accumulated more growing degree days than in the upper zone. The fruits in the upper zone presented a higher weight, total titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content. The plants presented a marked response to the differential agroecological conditions of the two sites.</p> 2020-04-03T14:37:51+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Author(s)