Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 2019-02-15T10:51:03+01:00 Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality Open Journal Systems <p>This journal is published in collaboration with the German Society for Quality Research on Plant Foods and the Section Applied Botany of the German Botanical Society. It focuses on applied research in plant physiology and plant ecology, plant biotechnology, plant breeding and cultivation, phytomedicine, plant nutrition, plant stress and resistance, plant microbiology, plant analysis (including -omics techniques), and plant food chemistry.</p> Foliar application of 5-aminolevulinic acid to promote bioactive potential and nutritional value of purslane, a vegetable for future 2019-02-15T09:41:47+01:00 Vahid Tavallali Samira Jandoust Abazar Ashtari Mehrjerdi <p>Decent taste and the salt and drought tolerance of purslane (<em>Portulaca oleracea </em>L.) make it a potential vegetable crop for the future. This study investigates the effects of foliar application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a new plant growth regulator, on the growth, mineral composition, and bioactive compounds of purslane. Three different levels of 5-ALA (0, 25 and 50 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) were sprayed at 1) two leaved stage and 2) upon the onset of inflorescence appearance on purslane seedlings. Results showed that 5-ALA application enhanced biomass accumulation in the plant shoot and increased shoot length. Concentration of nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, zinc and iron increased in the shoots of 5-ALA treated plants, while the calcium concentration remained unaffected. Phenolic compounds of the plant were catechin, chlorogenic acid, and ellagic acid, with catechin being the main compound. Further on, Trans-ferulic acid, hesperedin and eugenol were detected in the extract of 5-ALA-treated plants. Application of 5-ALA also increased fatty acids in the plant leaves. Total phenolics, ascorbic acid contents and antioxidative activity of shoot were increased in the 5-ALA-treated plants. Moreover, pH of root exudates of the plants was decreased in 5-ALA treated plants. The results revealed that exogenous 5-ALA has growth regulatory effects and can enhance the growth, and improve nutritional quality and pharmaceutical properties of <em>P. oleracea</em>. In this regard, the best results were obtained by application of 50 mg 5-ALA L<sup>-1</sup>.</p> 2019-02-15T09:29:51+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Metabolomic study of volatile compounds in the pigmented fruit from Mexico Crataegus genotypes 2019-02-06T11:05:37+01:00 Maria Dolores Perez-Lainez Tarsicio Corona-Torres Maria del Rosario García-Mateos Robert Winkler Alejandro F. Barrientos-Priego Raul Nieto-Ángel Victor Hebert Aguilar-Rincon José Armando García-Velázquez <p><em>Crataegus</em> is distributed worldwide and presents a phenotypic diversity in size, shape, color and aroma of the fruit. The objective of this study was to identify genotypes of Crataegus with a similar profile of volatile compounds by means of a metabolomic study. In addition, the content of pigment was evaluated to contribute to the agronomic, medicinal and chemotaxonomic value. Color determination, total carotenoids (TC) and total anthocyanins (TA) were determined in the exocarp and mesocarp of fresh fruits by means of spectrophotometry. The volatile compounds were determined by Low Temperature Plasma coupled to Mass Spectrometry (LTP-MS). A total of 75 volatile compounds were detected, according to abundance and mass-to-charge ratio, which by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and selection of variables; genotypes were grouped according to size and origin. The pigment content was related to the physical color of the fruit. The highest concentration of carotenoids was 42.35 μg·g-1 FW. in the genotype PO5, and 992.34 μg·g-1 FW for anthocyanins in the genotype CH18, concentrations of both compounds found in the exocarp of the fruit.</p> 2019-02-06T11:01:28+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Architectural effect of different tea clones on the development of blister blight disease 2019-01-28T16:25:07+01:00 Ponnusamy Ponmurugan Balasubramanian Mythili Gnanamangai Kolandaisamy Manjukarunambika <p>An attempt has been made to analyze the architectural traits of six elite tea (Camellia sinensis) clones representing the three principal taxa Assam, China and Cambod with respect to the correlation of blister blight disease (Exobasidium vexans) development. In order to analyze the architecture, branching habit and flushing behavior were observed and subsequently compared with disease incidence. All the clones followed similar architectural pattern irrespective of the cultivar but varied with levels of disease severity. The number of branches was higher in China when compared to Assam and Cambod, branch length was bigger in Assam followed by Cambod and China. Branch angle of all the clones lay well within the described range of theoretical value of 45 to 90°. In general, internodal length was bigger in Assam followed by Cambod and China. These architectural characteristics determined the number of harvestable tea shoots in the bush canopy. China cultivars exhibited an erectophile type of leaf angle, which influenced effective net photosynthesis, transpiration rates and light penetration in leaves. These factors are playing important roles in a disease development strategy. This study should be useful for clonal selection for new clearings and re-planting areas. Moreover, plants breeding programmes for studying the yield and tea quality losses due to blister blight disease benefit from the findings herein.</p> 2019-01-28T16:15:07+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mutagenic effects of sodium azide on pineapple micropropagant growth and biochemical profile within temporary immersion bioreactors 2019-02-15T10:51:03+01:00 Daviel Gómez Lazaro Hernandez Julia Martínez Janet Quiñones Byron Zevallos . Sershen Lourdes Yabor José Carlos Lorenzo Feijoo <p>Sodium azide (NaN<sub>3</sub>) is widely used to induce mutagenesis within <em>in vitro</em> plant systems. However, since this mutagenesis is undirected, its unintended effects demand characterization. This study investigated the mutagenic effects of sodium azide (0-0.45 mM) on selected growth (shoot multiplication rate and shoot cluster fresh weight) and biochemical (aldehydes, chlorophylls, carotenoids and phenolics) parameters in pineapple micropropagants within temporary immersion bioreactors (TIBs). The content of soluble phenolics in the culture medium was also evaluated. Irrespective of the concentration NaN3 decreased shoot multiplication rate (by 87% relative to the control at 0.45 mM) and fresh weight (by 66% relative to the control at 0.45 mM). Levels of chlorophyll a and b, and soluble phenolics in the culture medium were also negatively correlated with NaN<sub>3</sub> concentration. Interestingly, NaN<sub>3</sub> application increased shoot carotenoid and soluble phenolic levels but had no significant effect on a range of established plant stress biomarkers: cell wall-linked phenolic levels, malondialdehyde and other aldehydes. Given that 0.19 mM NaN<sub>3</sub> decreased shoot multiplication rate by 50% and resulted in propagants that displayed no morphologically abnormalities, increased levels of photoprotective pigments (relative to the control) and no significant increase in lipid peroxidation products, the mutagen can be used at this concentration to induce pineapple mutagenesis in TIB based studies aimed at producing agriculturally-useful mutants.</p> 2019-01-28T16:13:08+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Book review on "Gewürze und Küchenkräuter – Gewinnung, Inhaltsstoffe, Wirkungen, Verwendung" (Eberhard Teuscher mit Beiträgen von Monika Werner, 2018, 2nd edition) [in German] 2019-02-12T15:40:29+01:00 Hartwig Schulz <p>In der 2. Auflage seines naturwissenschaftlich orientierten Standardwerks nimmt der Autor den Leser wieder mit auf eine faszinierende Entdeckungsreise durch die Welt der Gewürze und Kräuter. In 84 reich bebilderten Portraits erfährt er Vieles über Botanik, Anbau und Ernte, Gewinnung und Handelsformen, Inhaltsstoffe, Qualitätsmerkmale und Wirkungen der bekanntesten Gewürzpflanzen sowie deren Verwendung in Küche und Hausmedizin. In Anhängen werden 200 weitere, in Europa seltener genutzte Gewürze sowie 150 Gewürzmischungen beschrieben. Vom stinkenden Asant über den kostbaren Safran bis zum duftenden Zimt stellt der Autor insgesamt 300 Pflanzen sowie die daraus gewonnenen Gewürze vor allem aus naturwissenschaftlicher, pharmazeutischer und medizinischer Sicht vor. Dabei wird auch auf die jeweilige Kultivierung, die Gewinnung der Gewürzdrogen, deren unterschiedliche Handelsformen, sowie auf die Chemie und Analytik der wichtigsten Pflanzeninhaltsstoffe näher eingegangen. Darüber hinaus finden sich ...</p> 2019-01-28T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##