Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 2018-12-10T12:41:38+01:00 Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality Open Journal Systems <p>This journal is published in collaboration with the German Society for Quality Research on Plant Foods and the Section Applied Botany of the German Botanical Society. It focuses on applied research in plant physiology and plant ecology, plant biotechnology, plant breeding and cultivation, phytomedicine, plant nutrition, plant stress and resistance, plant microbiology, plant analysis (including -omics techniques), and plant food chemistry.</p> Tomato yield, physiological response, water and nitrogen use efficiency under deficit and partial root zone drying irrigation in an arid region 2018-12-10T12:41:38+01:00 M. A. Badr W. A. El-Tohamy S. D. Abou-Hussein N. Gruda <p>Water scarcity in arid regions is a serious problem, which calls for innovative irrigation water management. Partial root zone drying (PRD) technique can considerably reduce irrigation amount for crops. To investigate this further, tomato plants were imposed to either surface drip (SUR) with full irrigation (FI) at 100% of evaporative demands and regulate deficit irrigation (RDI) at 50% water of FI or subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) with fixed PRD at 75 (PRD75) and 50% (PRD50) of the FI. Surface evaporation under SUR with FI constitutes a large fraction of water losses from cropped fields while SDI with PRD75 preserved more water for plant uptake. Plants grown under water saving treatments showed lower stomatal conductance and transpiration rates compared to FI plants. Tomato yield under SDI with PRD75 was comparable to yield under SUR with FI for both tested seasons along with 25% water saving and 30% increase in water use efficiency (WUE). Otherwise, PRD50 reduced yield by 18-20%, but a substantial amount of irrigation water was saved along a 60 and 65% higher WUE compared to FI treatment. Fruit dry weight and harvest index (HI) were significantly higher with PRD75 compared to the other treatments. Seasonal N uptake and in turn N recovery was higher in PRD75 than any other treatment associated with improving N use efficiency.</p> 2018-12-10T11:46:39+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of selenium application on mineral macro- and micronutrients and antioxidant status in strawberries 2018-12-10T11:49:51+01:00 Willian Alfredo Narváez-Ortiz Mariano Martínez-Hernández Laura Olivia Fuentes-Lara Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza Jesús Rodolfo Valenzuela-García José Antonio Gonzalez-Fuentes <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10.66px; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;" lang="EN">The application of selenium (Se) as sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) at 0, 2, and 4 mg L-1 concentrations in nutrient solution to strawberry plants was evaluated. Selenium did not modify the dry weights of the roots, stems, leaves, and fruits, or the fresh weights of the stems and fruits. The 4 mg L-1 concentration caused decreases in the fresh weights of the roots and leaves and in the yield. The mineral content of different plant organs changed but was not adversely affected by Se applications, with the 2 mg L-1 treatment having a lower impact on mineral concentration variation, as well as temporary positive effects on the fruits’ antioxidant status. The fruit pH was not adversely affected by application of Se. Se application in nutrient solution proved to be an adequate technique to increase the Se content in all plant organs. Se concentration exhibited a differential distribution, with the highest levels in the roots, followed by the leaves and crowns; the fruits had the lowest levels, reaching an average concentration of 31.2 mg kg-1 of dry weight. By contrast, fruits from the untreated plants obtained an average concentration of only 6.35 mg kg-1, with no decreases in the concentrations of other mineral elements in treated plants.</span></p> 2018-12-10T11:44:02+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of rootstock on elemental composition in leaves and grapes of vine cultivar ‘Regent’ grown in North-Western Poland 2018-12-10T10:40:36+01:00 Kamila Pachnowska Ireneusz Ochmian <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate nutrient contents and heavy metals of the leaves and berries of vine cultivar ‘Regent’ grafted on different rootstocks (‘Couderc 161-49’, ‘Sori’, ‘Kober 125AA’, ‘Börner’ and ‘Kober 5BB’) in comparison to control (‘Regent’ root; own-rooted vines). Leaf and berry samples were collected in three consecutive years (2013-2015) at the research station of West Pomeranian University of Technology Szczecin in Poland. In the experiment, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, P and Zn were analysed among mineral nutrients, whereas Cd and Pb were analysed among heavy metals. A substantial influence of tested rootstocks on analysed element contents in leaves and berries has been proven. All tested rootstocks enabled a higher concentration of Ca and Mg in leaves in comparison to ‘Regent’ root. The greatest concentrations of Ca, K and N were found in leaves and berries under ‘Sori’ rootstock. As the only rootstock, ‘Couderc 161-49’ was characterised by a higher level of iron in samples in relation to own-rooted vines. The ‘Börner’ rootstock was the most effective in inhibition of heavy metals uptake.</p> 2018-12-10T10:31:23+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Novel report of the phytochemical composition from Fraxinus excelsior pollen grains 2018-11-13T10:05:29+01:00 Maryam Sharif Shoushtari Ahmad Majd Taher Nejadsattari Mostafa Moin Gholam Ali Kardar <p>In this research, we investigated the phytochemical profiles for two models of aqueous (Aq) and methanolic (Me) pollen extracts of <em>F. excelsior</em> from three pollination periods from hermaphrodite flowers (H) of polygamous and male flowers of pure male (M) in order to identify their constituent compounds. Pollens of both phenotypes H and M were collected during three pollination periods and were analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy (LM/SEM). The total phenolic content (TPC) and flavonoids content (TFC) was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) methods, respectively. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and scavenging free radical DPPH• and ABTS•+. GC-FID and GC/MS were used to identify the chemical composition of essential oils. There was a significant difference (P &lt; 0.001) between the means of TPC for M and TFC for the H. Comparison of H and M antioxidant activities showed that DPPH (IC50) to be (2.977 ± 0.117 μM) during the second pollination period of M and (4.877 ± 0.021 μM) for first period of H. The majority of the compounds identified were linalool (35.42%) from the monoterpenoides in H and Delta-cadinene (43.22%) belonging to the sesquiterpenes in M. We concluded that there is a significant difference between the H and M compounds in pollen at different periods.</p> 2018-11-12T16:08:29+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Quantitative effects of soil salinity on the symbiosis of wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) and Bradyrhizobium in Costa Rica 2018-11-12T16:12:04+01:00 Daniel J Ballhorn Emily R Wolfe Jess Tyler Wren Ronan Scott Sands-Gouner Curran Shaw Mehmet A Balkan Stefanie Kautz <p>Global climate change and local anthropogenic activities are increasing soil salinization with permanent negative effects on agricultural and ecosystem productivity. While salt stress is known to affect plant performance, its effects on the association with key microbial plant symbionts, such as legume-associated nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, are less understood. In this field study conducted in Costa Rica (Puntarenas), we used sympatrically-occurring wild lima bean (<em>Phaseolus lunatus</em> L.) and Bradyrhizobium to quantify biomass production of unfertilized rhizobial (R+) and fertilized rhizobia-free (R-) plants at different levels of experimentally manipulated salinity in native soil. In response to salt stress, nodulation was significantly reduced even at slightly increased salt levels. Plants growing at soil salinity levels of 2, 4, 6, and 8 mS/cm showed a mean reduction of nodules by 60.22, 76.52, 83.98, and 92.5% compared to the controls. Similarly, we also observed a significant decline in plant biomass at elevated salinity. However, biomass accumulation of R- plants was significantly less impacted compared to R+ plants, suggesting that the plant-microbe symbiosis is more salt-sensitive than the plant host itself. We suggest that the search for more salt-tolerant, crop plant-compatible rhizobial strains may provide a sustainable approach to maintain agricultural productivity on low to moderately saline soils.</p> 2018-11-12T15:58:03+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##