Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 2019-04-11T15:23:17+02:00 Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality Open Journal Systems <p>This journal is published in collaboration with the German Society for Quality Research on Plant Foods and the Section Applied Botany of the German Botanical Society. It focuses on applied research in plant physiology and plant ecology, plant biotechnology, plant breeding and cultivation, phytomedicine, plant nutrition, plant stress and resistance, plant microbiology, plant analysis (including -omics techniques), and plant food chemistry.</p> Cryopreservation of sorghum seeds modifies germination and seedling growth but not field performance of adult plants 2019-04-11T15:23:16+02:00 Ariel Villalobos Melissa Arguedas Doris Escalante Julia Martinez Byron Enrique Zevallos Inaudis Cejas Lourdes Yabor Marcos Edel Martinez-Montero Sershen Sershen José Carlos Lorenzo Feijoo <p>Climate change poses risks to both wild and crop plant biodiversity, which can be mitigated by cryopreservation (usually at -196 °C in liquid nitrogen [LN]) of crop germplasm. Cryopreservation is widely regarded as a reliable method for the ex situ conservation of plant genetic resources but its effects on subsequent field performance of popular crop species such as sorghum are largely unknown. This hampers the large-scale implementation (i.e. germplasm banks) of cryostorage for such species. This short communication describes the early stages of germination and field performance of plants derived from cryopreserved sorghum seed. Compared with the control, cryopreservation significantly increased seed electrolyte leakage and from 24 to 120 hours, percentage of germination of the control was ~2.6 folds higher than cryopreserved seeds. At 0 days, chlorophyll a/b rate was ~1.7 folds higher in the control and at 7 and 14 days, chlorophyll a level (~1.5 folds) and chlorophyll a/b rate (~1.8-1.9 folds) were higher in the control. Contrastingly, at 7 days, seedlings derived from cryopreserved seeds (treatment seedlings) showed ~1.5 folds more superoxide dismutase activity and ~1.9 folds more peroxidase activity. In contrast, treatment and control adult plants were statistically comparable in terms of chlorophylls, proteins, superoxide and peroxidase activities, plant architecture, and yield components. The fact that differences in biochemical indicators observed between control and treatment seedlings did not persist in adult plants validates the use of seed cryopreservation for the conservation of sorghum genetic resources.</p> 2019-04-11T15:21:15+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Autotetraploid plant production in endemic Onobrychis elata with colchicine treatments 2019-04-11T15:23:17+02:00 Suleyman Avci Metin Tuna Mehmet Demir Kaya <p>This study aimed to induce autotetraploidy in endemic Onobrychis elata plants by colchicine treatment of seeds or seedlings. Colchicine was applied to O. elata directly on germinated seeds, pre-germinated seeds (root length of 3-8 mm), and apical regions (using cotton) under in vivo conditions. Out of a total of 1,210 colchicine-treated seeds that were evaluated, only 203 survived. There was an inverse relationship between the number of surviving plants and colchicine concentration and exposure time. The highest percentage of tetraploidy in surviving plants (50%) was obtained by applying 0.2% colchicine for 6 hours to pre-germinated seeds. No significant tetraploidy was achieved by colchicine application to seedlings. Flow cytometry observations indicated that DNA content varied between 0.99 and 1.06 pg in diploid plants (controls), while DNA content varied between 2.22 and 2.48 pg in tetraploid plants. It was concluded that tetraploid plants were induced successfully only in seedlings obtained from pre-germinated seeds, with their ploidy level confirmed via flow cytometry analysis.</p> 2019-04-11T15:16:07+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of harvest date on yield and secondary compounds of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) 2019-03-22T09:15:30+01:00 Éva Németh-Zámboriné Katarzyna Seidler-Łożykowska Krisztina Szabó <p>The quality of the drug of lemon balm (<em>Melissa officinalis</em> L.) is influenced by several factors, among which the effect of ontogenesis has practically not been studied before. Five varieties (‘Lorelei’, ‘Lemona’, ‘Quedlinburger Niederliegende,’, ‘Gold Leaf’, ‘Soroksár’) were sampled at vegetative, budding, full flowering and after flowering phases at two locations (Budapest and Poznań) and their dried leaves analysed.<br>The accumulation of volatile compounds showed maximum values (0.08-0.46 ml/100 g dry weight) in budding phase (Budapest) or during flowering (Poznań). The content of total phenolics was highest (226-431 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight) in vegetative stage and in some cases similar values were measured until budding. After a sharp decrease at flowering time in several cases, a second peak was detected at the end of the vegetation period. Similarly to the total phenolics, also the total flavonoid content reached the highest level (0.239-1.152% dry weight) at the first half of the vegetation period however, with characteristic differences between habitats.<br>In cultivation, the highest essential oil content may be reached later than highest polyphenol content, however harvesting at budding time may assure a good quality from both aspects with advantageous fresh and drug yields. The described dynamics of the accumulation of the investigated secondary metabolites was depending more on the habitat and less from the cultivar.</p> 2019-03-22T09:08:23+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn profiling of polyphenolics in different parts of Capparis spinosa and Capparis decidua as function of harvesting seasons 2019-03-22T09:15:31+01:00 Tehseen Gull Bushra Sultana Farooq Anwar Wasif Nouman Eduardo Augusto dos Santos Rosa Raúl Domínguez-Perles <p>HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS<sup>n</sup> analysis of different parts such as stem bark, shoot, flower, fruit and root of <em>Capparis spinosa</em> (<em>C. spinosa</em>) and <em>Capparis decidua</em> (<em>C. decidua</em>), collected in rainy and dry seasons from the Cholistan desert of Pakistan, depicted the occurrence of a wide array of phenolics with quercetin, apigenin and kaempferol derivatives along with dicaffeoylquinic acid, caffeoylquinic acid and feruloylquinic acid as the main compounds. Kaempferol-3-glucoside (28.02-167.21 μg g<sup>-1</sup>dw) was found to be the principal component in all tested parts of both species while dicaffeoylquinic acid was detected only in the flowers and roots. The roots exhibited maximum contents of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The harvesting period significantly (<em>p&lt;0.05</em>) affected the concentration of phenolics wherein the samples collected in rainy season offered greater levels of phenolics than their counterpart. The roots and fruits of both species were found to be rich sources of phenolics. The findings of this research suggest the harvesting of the selected wild <em>Capparis</em> species in rainy season to maximize their antioxidant and nutraceutical benefits.</p> 2019-03-19T15:07:16+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phenolic and lipophilic compounds of wheat grain as factors affecting susceptibility to infestation by granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius L.) 2019-03-04T13:24:03+01:00 Bożena Kordan Marta Skrajda Małgorzata Tańska Iwona Konopka Robert Cabaj Dariusz Załuski <p>The impact of certain groups of polyphenolic (phenolic acids and alkylresorcinols) and lipophilic compounds (total lipids, fatty acids, sterols, tocols and carotenoids) on susceptibility of bread wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.) kernels to <em>Sitophilus granarius</em> infestation was studied. In the experiments, six cultivars of spring wheat with comparable protein content, endosperm hardness and overall technological quality were used. Twenty grams of grain were infested by 10 pairs of beetles and stored for one week or eight weeks at 28±2°C and relative humidity of 60%. The intensity of growth and feeding of<em> S. granarius</em> varied significantly in the used cultivars. The antixenosis effect of the studied grain chemicals, observed after one week of infestation, was the lowest for Łagwa cv., which was characterized by the highest total lipid and sterol contents. Other cultivars showed a similar antixenosis effect. For antibiosis effect, the most attractive for <em>S. granarius</em> infestation was Ostka Smolicka cv., which was characterized by the lowest content of total phenolic acids. In contrast, the highest antibiosis effect was found for Arabella and Izera cvs. with the lowest values of sterol content and average values of other determined phytochemicals.</p> 2019-03-04T12:26:55+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##