Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality <p>This journal is published in collaboration with the German Society for Quality Research on Plant Foods and the Section Applied Botany of the German Botanical Society. It focuses on applied research in plant physiology and plant ecology, plant biotechnology, plant breeding and cultivation, phytomedicine, plant nutrition, plant stress and resistance, plant microbiology, plant analysis (including -omics techniques), and plant food chemistry.</p> en-US Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 1613-9216 <p>From Volume 86 (2013) on, the content of the journal is licensed under the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 License</a>. Any user is free to share and adapt (remix, transform, build upon) the content as long as the original publication is attributed (authors, title, year, journal, issue, pages) and the new work is licensed under a CC-BY-SA compatible license.</p> <p>The copyright of the published work remains with the authors. If you want to use published content beyond what the CC-BY-SA license permits, please contact the corresponding author, whose contact information can be found on the last page of the respective article. In case you want to reproduce content from older issues (before CC BY-SA applied), please contact the&nbsp;corresponding author to ask for permission.</p> Drought affects size, nutritional quality, antioxidant activities and phenolic acids of Moringa oleifera LAM. <p>To observe variation in growth performance, antioxidant activities, and nutritional quality of <em>Moringa oleifera,</em> we exogenously applied benzyl amino purine (BAP), ascorbic acid, and moringa leaf extract (MLE) to moringa plants at three field capacity levels, 100, 75, and 40% in a completely randomized design with three replications. We observed a decrease in growth, chlorophyll a and b, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, crude protein, and mineral contents of moringa leaves at 100 and 40% field capacity in comparison with 75% field capacity. BAP best improved growth performance of moringa plants, improving shoot length, root length, number of leaves and photosynthetic pigments, followed by MLE at 75% field capacity, while moringa plants showed reduced growth at 40% field capacity which was increased by BAP and MLE foliar application. Maximum contents of gallic acid, p-coumaric acid and sinapic acid were found in moringa leaves when the plants were sprayed with ascorbic acid while <em>p</em>-hydroxybenzoic acid and caffeic acid were maximally increased under 75% field capacity when the plants were subjected to BAP followed by MLE. The lowest and highest crude protein, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorous contents were recorded under 40 and 75% field capacity, with MLE impro-ving these contents under both conditions. It can safely be concluded that moringa plants showed retarded growth under 100 and 40% field capacity, and that the effects of deficit in nutritional quality were mitigated by applying BAP and MLE. Among these two plant growth regulators, MLE can be preferred being a natural source.</p> Wasif Nouman Mark E Olson Tehseen Gull Muhammad Zubair Shahzad MA Basra Muhammad Kamran Qureshi Muhammad Tauseef Sultan Mehak Shaheen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-19 2018-04-19 91 79 87 10.5073/JABFQ.2018.091.011 Quality aspects in open-pollinated onion varieties from Western Europe <p>Commercial onion breeders limit their selection criteria by focusing almost exclusively on conventional farming. This raises the demand for certain well known varieties, but lowers the general diversity available on the mainstream market. A way to maintain biodiversity is to preserve old open-pollinated varieties. Through their distinct aroma and flavor, these plants are again drawing the interest of farmers and consumers alike, making them a viable alternative to commercial varieties. To assess yield and quality aspects of West-European open-pollinated onions, we have evaluated nine varieties and compared them against two of their commercial, well-established counterparts. The study included onion production on the field in South-West Germany, evaluation of the quality and flavor parameters, as well as a trained sensory taste panel. Results showed high diversity in yield and chemical properties of the studied onion varieties, where two varieties in particular, stood out significantly. Compared to the control, the variety “Birnförmige” performed best and demonstrated high concentrations of fructan and pyruvic acid, both known to have curative and medicinal properties. On the other end of the spectrum, the variety “Jaune des Cévennes” demonstrated low dry matter content, low concentration of enzymatically-produced pyruvic acid and a high bolting percentage. The study also confirmed the link between individual quality components in onion bulbs, including the significantly negative correlation between minerals (such as calcium and magnesium) and fructan.</p> Maria Romo Perez Nikolaus Merkt Sabine Zikeli Christian Zörb ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-19 2018-04-19 91 69 78 10.5073/JABFQ.2018.091.010 Content of bioactive compounds and their contribution to antioxidant capacity during ripening of pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) cv Esmeralda <p>Pineapple (<em>Ananas comosus </em>L.) cv Esmeralda is a commercially important fruit with many bioactive compounds like vitamin C, β-carotene, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, which have been reported only for fruits of commercial maturity. Our objective was to evaluate changes in concentration of main pineapple bioactives, their contribution to total antioxidant capacity and enzyme activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) during pineapple ripening. Fruits were grouped into four ripening stages (RS) according to their weight, size and percentage of yellow skin color (RS1: 100% green, RS2: up to 30% yellow, RS3: 30% - 75% yellow, RS4: 75% - 100% yellow). Vitamin C content initially increased, and decreased at RS4; β-carotene, phenolics and antioxidant capacity increased gradually. Phenolics contributed over 40% of antioxidant capacity, followed by vitamin C and β-carotene. Major phenolic compounds identified were gallic acid, catechin and epicatechin. PAL and POD activity increased with ripening and correlated with concentration of phenolics. No PPO activity was quantified. We concluded that ripening of pineapple cv Esmeralda alters the concentration of bioactive compounds. Phenolic compounds, particularly gallic acid, exert the most antioxidant capacity during all RS, even if other compounds have higher concentrations.</p> Cindy Rosas Domínguez J. Abraham Domínguez Avila Sunil Pareek Mónica A. Villegas Ochoa J. Fernando Ayala Zavala Elhadi Yahia Gustavo A. González Aguilar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-21 2018-03-21 91 61 68 10.5073/JABFQ.2018.091.009 Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in no-till and conventionally tilled vineyards <p>The use of a permanent vegetation cover or frequent tillage in vineyards may affect soil water budget, nutrient availability, soil compaction, soil erosion and soil microbe biodiversity, and through all these and other factors also yield and wine quality parameters. The abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) might also be influenced, but so far effects on AMF by permanent vege-<br>tation cover (= no-tillage systems) or repeated chiseling and rotary-tillaging have rarely been compared in vineyards. The objective of this on-farm study was to determine AMF species richness and diversity in two adjacent vineyards in Palatinate (SW Germany). In both vineyards, grown on fertile Luvisols, the var. “Pinot Gris” was grown for 39 years, but with different soil cultivation and different fertilization strategies. In one vineyard, soil was maintained periodically without vegetation by passing rotatory cultivator and chiseling between the grapevine rows (‘inter-rows’) several times per year, preferably during spring and summer and in dependency of rainfall and ‘weed’ growth, and fertilization was mainly by organic fertilizers in the last ten years before soil sampling. In the other vineyard, a permanent vegetation has been established since planting, dominated by <em>Lolium perenne</em>, and mineral fertilizers were exclusively applied. Despite of similar high nutrient availability in both soils, in particular of phosphorus, astonishing high AMF species richness and diversity were found in both vineyards. In the no-tillage inter-rows, 34 AMF species were found, with a species composition typically for Central European permanent grasslands (Shannon diversity index 2.45). In the tillage system 24 AMF species were found with a composition as known for extensively used, cultivated Central European croplands (diversity index 2.26). We conclude that above all soil cultivation has affected AMF diversity in these Central European vineyards, while the level and type of fertilization affected the AMF communities only on a minor level.</p> Fritz Oehl Bruno Koch ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-15 2018-03-15 91 56 60 10.5073/JABFQ.2018.091.008 Nutritional compositions in roots, twigs, leaves, fruit pulp, and seeds from pawpaw (Asimina triloba [L.] Dunal) grown in Korea <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Pawpaw (<em>Asimina triloba</em> L.) roots, twigs, leaves, fruit, and seeds were analyzed for their nutritional compositions. Seeds exhibited significantly higher levels of crude protein, lipid, fiber, and dietary fiber than those of the other parts. Sucrose in fruit was 9321.24 mg%, which was the highest among the samples. The total essential amino acid to total amino acid ratio was highest in the leaves, and the leaves contained the highest amount of potassium. The calcium content ranged between 8.15-153.41 mg%. Oleic and linoleic acids in seeds were 5905.11 and 8045.56 mg%, respectively, which were the highest among the pawpaw parts. The highest amount of linolenic acid was measured in the leaves, and β-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E were also the most abundant in the leaves. These results suggest that every part of pawpaw is a good source of an important food item. Additionally, this study provides basic data for improving the sitological value of pawpaw.</span></p> Jin-Sik Nam Hye-Lim Jang Young Ha Rhee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-15 2018-03-15 91 47 55 10.5073/JABFQ.2018.091.007