Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality <p>This journal is published in collaboration with the German Society for Quality Research on Plant Foods and the Section Applied Botany of the German Botanical Society. It focuses on applied research in plant physiology and plant ecology, plant biotechnology, plant breeding and cultivation, phytomedicine, plant nutrition, plant stress and resistance, plant microbiology, plant analysis (including -omics techniques), and plant food chemistry.</p> en-US Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 1613-9216 <p>From Volume 92 (2019) on, the content of the journal is licensed under the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License</a>. Any user is free to share and adapt (remix, transform, build upon) the content as long as the original publication is attributed (authors, title, year, journal, issue, pages) and any changes are labelled.</p> <p>The copyright of the published work remains with the authors. If you want to use published content beyond what the CC-BY license permits, please contact the corresponding author, whose contact information can be found on the last page of the respective article. In case you want to reproduce content from older issues (before CC BY applied), please contact the&nbsp;corresponding author to ask for permission.</p> Plants as a source of natural high-intensity sweeteners: a review <p>The plants described in this review are a source of natural highintensity sweeteners, which can be used in food and by the pharmaceutical industry in the future. Most of the plants are still not approved for use, even though they are traditionally used in countries where they appear naturally. Ten of the herein described intense sweeteners are characterized by a much higher sweetness in relation to sucrose. The highest values were received for miraculin, obtained from <em>Synsepalum dulcificum</em> (400,000 times sweeter than sucrose, induced by citric acid); thaumatin (1,600 to 3,000 times sweeter), monatin (1,200 - 3,000) and pentadin (500 to 2,000 times sweeter). Some of these substances can also modify the taste, like changing sour into sweet taste (miraculin and neoculin). The most widely used sweeteners are steviol glycosides and thaumatin, which have been admitted for use as a sweetener in the European Union, while in the US, they have the GRAS status (thaumatin as a food enhancer). Mogroside obtained from <em>Siraitia grosvenorii</em> (called Luo Han Guo) is not approved for use in the EU, but was granted GRAS status in the US by the FDA. This gives a chance that it will soon be approved as a novel food or food additive in the European Union.</p> Katarzyna Świąder K. Wegner Anna Piotrowska Fa-Jui Tan Anna Sadowska ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-26 2019-06-26 92 160 171 10.5073/JABFQ.2019.092.022 Variation in fruit chemical and mineral composition of Kenyan guava (Psidium guajava L.): Inferences from climatic conditions, and fruit morphological traits <p>There is limited knowledge about the impact of climatic conditions and fruit morphological traits on the nutritional composition of the guava fruit. Fruits were gathered from 128 guava trees across four geographically diverse regions of Kenya. The fruits were morphologically characterized and analysed for their chemical and mineral composition. The ascorbic acid content correlated positively only with total annual precipitation, while total soluble solids (TSS) correlated positively with mean annual temperature. TSS correlated negatively with pulp weight and was higher in white-fleshed fruits than in the red-fleshed types. The mineral content of the fruits correlated negatively with most of the fruit weight- and size-based morphological<br>traits, as well as with the total annual precipitation, but positively with fruit seed proportion. This information could act as a guide in the selection of specific regions for upscaling guava production and aid in the selection of accessions for improvement programmes that enhance guava fruit nutritional composition.</p> Josiah Chemulanga Chiveu Marcel Naumann Katja Kehlenbeck Elke Pawelzik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-26 2019-06-26 92 151 159 10.5073/JABFQ.2019.092.021 Phytochemical content, antioxidant potential, and fatty acid composition of dried Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars <p>This study reports the main phenolic compounds, as well as phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity in nine sun-dried fig cultivars with different skin color, originating from South-Eastern and Middle-Eastern Tunisia. For all evaluated parameters, a considerable variability with high significant differences was observed among the cultivars studied. Dark fruits exhibited a higher total polyphenol contents (201.77 mg GAE/100g DM in cultivar Saoudi Douiret) compared to green fruits (73.74 mg GAE/100g DM in cultivar Bayoudhi Douiret). Fatty acid methyl esters, identified by GC-MS, distinguished the presence of (C16: 0), (C18: 1), ((C18: 2) 9, 12), ((C18: 3) 9, 12, 15) and (C20: 0). Strong correlations between the amounts of total phenolics, phenolic acids, flavonoids, fatty acids and antioxidant capacity were found. A principal component analysis showed three groups of cultivars regarding their similarity level.</p> Marwa Khadhraoui Mohamed Bagues Francisco Artés Ali Ferchichi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-20 2019-06-20 92 143 150 10.5073/JABFQ.2019.092.020 Different response to 1-methylcyclopropene in two cultivars of Chinese pear fruit with contrasting softening characteristics <p>In this study, the change in softening and its related genes expression under influence of 500 nl L<sup>-1</sup> 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was assessed in the two Chinese pear fruit, ‘Jingbaili’ (<em>Pyrus ussuriensis</em> Maxim) and ‘Yali’ (<em>Pyrus bretschneideri</em> Rehd), which exhibit different softening characteristics. ‘Jingbaili’ pear fruit softened rapidly after harvest, and was strongly inhibited by 1-MCP. In contrast, there was no obvious change of firmness compared to the control after 1-MCP treatment in ‘Yali’ pear fruit. The respiration and ethylene production rates were reduced by 1-MCP at early storage in both two cultivars. ‘Jingbaili’ pear fruit exhibited dramatically increased expression levels of the softening-related genes, i.e., polygalacturonase1 (<em>PG1</em>), polygalacturonase2 (<em>PG2</em>), β-Galactosidase4 (<em>GAL4</em>), α-arabinofuranosidase1 (<em>ARF1</em>) and α-arabinofuranosidase2 (<em>ARF2</em>), and these genes’ expression levels were significantly decreased by 1-MCP treatment. In contrast, ‘Yali’ pear fruit showed lower expression levels of the above-mentioned genes, as well as a relatively smaller inhibition effect by 1-MCP treatment before day 27. These results suggest that ‘Jingbaili’ pear fruit are more sensitive to 1-MCP/ethylene than ‘Yali’ pear fruit during ripening.</p> Jianmei Wei Yudou Cheng Yunxiao Feng Xiudong Qi Jingang He Junfeng Guan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-07 2019-06-07 92 138 142 10.5073/JABFQ.2019.092.019 Influence of ripening stages on phytochemical composition and bioavailability of ginseng berry (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) <p>The presence of large amounts of bioactive compounds such as saponins and flavonoids in ginseng (<em>Panax ginseng</em>) berry suggests its potential as a functional resource for the food and medical industries, despite the fact that been considered a useless by-products of <em>P. ginseng</em>. In this study, we examined the variations in the antioxidant and anti-melanogenic potential of ginseng berry during the ripening process. We found that fully ripe berry extracts (Go-S3) contained the highest level of antioxidant and anti-melanogenic activities. Phytochemical screening suggested that alterations in polyphenol contents correlated with the variation in bioactive principles of ginseng berry during the ripening process. Furthermore, results obtained by quantitative real-time PCR, western blot, tyrosinase inhibition assay and molecular docking analysis suggested that Go-S3 probably inhibits tyrosinase activity by interacting with copper-coordinating histidines and second shell residues of tyrosinase, resulting in the reduction of melanin production in <em>α</em>-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells. Taken together, these finding suggest the potential of ginseng berry as a resource for functional applications in the cosmetic industries and demonstrate that fruit ripening stages have profound effects on the pharmaceutical value of ginseng berry.</p> Sora Jin Seung Hee Eom Ju-Sung Kim Ick Hyun Jo Tae Kyung Hyun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-07 2019-06-07 92 130 137 10.5073/JABFQ.2019.092.018