Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality <p>This journal is published in collaboration with the German Society for Quality Research on Plant Foods and the Section Applied Botany of the German Botanical Society. It focuses on applied research in plant physiology and plant ecology, plant biotechnology, plant breeding and cultivation, phytomedicine, plant nutrition, plant stress and resistance, plant microbiology, plant analysis (including -omics techniques), and plant food chemistry.</p> en-US Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 1613-9216 <p>From Volume 92 (2019) on, the content of the journal is licensed under the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License</a>. Any user is free to share and adapt (remix, transform, build upon) the content as long as the original publication is attributed (authors, title, year, journal, issue, pages) and any changes are labelled.</p> <p>The copyright of the published work remains with the authors. If you want to use published content beyond what the CC-BY license permits, please contact the corresponding author, whose contact information can be found on the last page of the respective article. In case you want to reproduce content from older issues (before CC BY applied), please contact the&nbsp;corresponding author to ask for permission.</p> Phytochemical content, antioxidant potential, and fatty acid composition of dried Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars <p>This study reports the main phenolic compounds, as well as phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity in nine sun-dried fig cultivars with different skin color, originating from South-Eastern and Middle-Eastern Tunisia. For all evaluated parameters, a considerable variability with high significant differences was observed among the cultivars studied. Dark fruits exhibited a higher total polyphenol contents (201.77 mg GAE/100g DM in cultivar Saoudi Douiret) compared to green fruits (73.74 mg GAE/100g DM in cultivar Bayoudhi Douiret). Fatty acid methyl esters, identified by GC-MS, distinguished the presence of (C16: 0), (C18: 1), ((C18: 2) 9, 12), ((C18: 3) 9, 12, 15) and (C20: 0). Strong correlations between the amounts of total phenolics, phenolic acids, flavonoids, fatty acids and antioxidant capacity were found. A principal component analysis showed three groups of cultivars regarding their similarity level.</p> Marwa Khadhraoui Mohamed Bagues Francisco Artés Ali Ferchichi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-20 2019-06-20 92 143 150 10.5073/JABFQ.2019.092.020 Different response to 1-methylcyclopropene in two cultivars of Chinese pear fruit with contrasting softening characteristics <p>In this study, the change in softening and its related genes expression under influence of 500 nl L<sup>-1</sup> 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was assessed in the two Chinese pear fruit, ‘Jingbaili’ (<em>Pyrus ussuriensis</em> Maxim) and ‘Yali’ (<em>Pyrus bretschneideri</em> Rehd), which exhibit different softening characteristics. ‘Jingbaili’ pear fruit softened rapidly after harvest, and was strongly inhibited by 1-MCP. In contrast, there was no obvious change of firmness compared to the control after 1-MCP treatment in ‘Yali’ pear fruit. The respiration and ethylene production rates were reduced by 1-MCP at early storage in both two cultivars. ‘Jingbaili’ pear fruit exhibited dramatically increased expression levels of the softening-related genes, i.e., polygalacturonase1 (<em>PG1</em>), polygalacturonase2 (<em>PG2</em>), β-Galactosidase4 (<em>GAL4</em>), α-arabinofuranosidase1 (<em>ARF1</em>) and α-arabinofuranosidase2 (<em>ARF2</em>), and these genes’ expression levels were significantly decreased by 1-MCP treatment. In contrast, ‘Yali’ pear fruit showed lower expression levels of the above-mentioned genes, as well as a relatively smaller inhibition effect by 1-MCP treatment before day 27. These results suggest that ‘Jingbaili’ pear fruit are more sensitive to 1-MCP/ethylene than ‘Yali’ pear fruit during ripening.</p> Jianmei Wei Yudou Cheng Yunxiao Feng Xiudong Qi Jingang He Junfeng Guan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-07 2019-06-07 92 138 142 10.5073/JABFQ.2019.092.019 Influence of ripening stages on phytochemical composition and bioavailability of ginseng berry (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) <p>The presence of large amounts of bioactive compounds such as saponins and flavonoids in ginseng (<em>Panax ginseng</em>) berry suggests its potential as a functional resource for the food and medical industries, despite the fact that been considered a useless by-products of <em>P. ginseng</em>. In this study, we examined the variations in the antioxidant and anti-melanogenic potential of ginseng berry during the ripening process. We found that fully ripe berry extracts (Go-S3) contained the highest level of antioxidant and anti-melanogenic activities. Phytochemical screening suggested that alterations in polyphenol contents correlated with the variation in bioactive principles of ginseng berry during the ripening process. Furthermore, results obtained by quantitative real-time PCR, western blot, tyrosinase inhibition assay and molecular docking analysis suggested that Go-S3 probably inhibits tyrosinase activity by interacting with copper-coordinating histidines and second shell residues of tyrosinase, resulting in the reduction of melanin production in <em>α</em>-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells. Taken together, these finding suggest the potential of ginseng berry as a resource for functional applications in the cosmetic industries and demonstrate that fruit ripening stages have profound effects on the pharmaceutical value of ginseng berry.</p> Sora Jin Seung Hee Eom Ju-Sung Kim Ick Hyun Jo Tae Kyung Hyun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-07 2019-06-07 92 130 137 10.5073/JABFQ.2019.092.018 Rapid analysis of the bioactive components in Saxifraga stolonifera, an edible and medicinal herb with anti-tumor effects, by HPLC-DAD, ESI/MSn <p><em>Saxifraga stolonifera</em> is an edible and herbaceous plant, which has been demonstrated to have anti-tumor effects in vivo and in vitro. The aim of this paper is to determine the main bioactive components in<br><em>S. stolonifera</em>, and their distribution in different parts of <em>S. stolonifera</em> and in <em>S. stolonifera</em> that was cultivated in different places in China using a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector and electrospray ionization/ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn). Four main components were identified and three were quantified. The contents of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and bergenin had significant differences not only between the roots and stems-leaves of the plant, but also among different cultivated varieties of <em>S. stolonifera</em>. The experiment showed that the method used here exhibited good repeatability and recovery. Therefore, the results provide reliable data for research and development in the future on the level and distribution of the three bioactive components of S. stolonifera.</p> Meng Zhang Dong Liu Yu-Qing Zhang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-16 2019-05-16 92 123 129 10.5073/JABFQ.2019.092.017 Sodium in the leaf apoplast does not affect growth of maize (Zea mays L.) under saline field conditions <p>Studies dealing with leaf apoplastic Na<sup>+</sup> concentration of monocots, such as maize, under actual saline soils are scarce. Therefore, the current study was aimed to investigate the growth, total ions and leaf apoplastic Na<sup>+</sup> concentration of salt sensitive maize plants growing in saline soils. Plants were subjected to salt stress with an electrical conductivity (EC) of 3, 8 10 and 14 dS m<sup>-1</sup> using completely randomized design (CRD) for 3 weeks. Shoot fresh weight, plant height, leaf area and leaf length of maize plants drastically decreased when plants were exposed to increasing salt stress. We found that maize could display a steep increase in Na<sup>+</sup> concentration in the total shoot biomass with maximum 82.3 μmol g<sup>-1</sup> FW, when plants were subjected to highest soil salinity at 14 dS m<sup>-1</sup>. As expected, other cations i.e., K<sup>+</sup>, Ca<sup>2+</sup> and Mg<sup>2+</sup> decreased with increasing EC of the soil compared to Na+. Surprisingly, a maximum of 17 mM Na+ were found in the leaf apoplast of maize grown under very high soil salinity at EC 14 dS m<sup>-1</sup>. Considering this lower leaf apoplastic Na+ concentration at such a high EC level in maize plants, current study does not corroborate that surplus sodium in the leaf apoplast can result in dehydration and cell death under salt stress.</p> Muhammad Shahzad Haris Usman Rafiq Ahmad Sabaz Ali Khan Zulfiqar A. Saqib Karl H. Mühling ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-16 2019-05-16 92 117 122 10.5073/JABFQ.2019.092.016