Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality <p>This journal is published in collaboration with the German Society for Quality Research on Plant Foods and the Section Applied Botany of the German Botanical Society. It focuses on applied research in plant physiology and plant ecology, plant biotechnology, plant breeding and cultivation, phytomedicine, plant nutrition, plant stress and resistance, plant microbiology, plant analysis (including -omics techniques), and plant food chemistry.</p> en-US Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 1613-9216 <p>From Volume 92 (2019) on, the content of the journal is licensed under the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License</a>. Any user is free to share and adapt (remix, transform, build upon) the content as long as the original publication is attributed (authors, title, year, journal, issue, pages) and any changes are labelled.</p> <p>The copyright of the published work remains with the authors. If you want to use published content beyond what the CC-BY license permits, please contact the corresponding author, whose contact information can be found on the last page of the respective article. In case you want to reproduce content from older issues (before CC BY applied), please contact the&nbsp;corresponding author to ask for permission.</p> Nutritional composition and genetic diversity of Thai Aromatic Rice landraces <p>Fifty Thai aromatic rice landraces and one commercial cultivar (KDML 105) were subjected to proximate nutritional analysis to determine protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrate, ash, moisture, amylose and 2AP contents. Genetic diversity was characterized using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Fifty-one cultivars were clustered based on RAPD and ISSR markers. Various nutrient compositions of the fifty rice landrace cultivars and one commercial cultivar were checked. Among 100 RAPD primers tested, 15 showed high polymorphism (100%) with an average of 21.2 bands per primer. Fifteen ISSR primers out of 100 produced high polymorphism (99.74%) with an average of 26 bands per primer. The UPGMA dendrogram based on genetic similarity grouped the cultivars into two clusters and several sub-clusters. Clustering of aromatic rice using ISSR markers gave increased clarity and was more effective than using RAPD markers for both nutritional composition and polymorphism level. Findings will provide practical guidelines for nutritionists and plant breeders in selecting suitable cultivars and genetically diverse parents for plant breeding programs.</p> Worasitikulya Taratima Pitakpong Maneerattanarungroj Khwanduean Rattana Wattanachai Pathomsirivong Pradub Reanprayoon ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-10 2019-10-10 92 281 287 10.5073/JABFQ.2019.092.039 Foliar Magnesium supply increases the abundance of RuBisCO of Mg-deficient maize plants <p>Magnesium is a vital macronutrient for plants and is involved in a series of essential physiological processes, e.g., carbohydrate partitioning and photosynthesis. The latter is strictly Mg-dependent, as Mg is the central atom of chlorophyll, and is also required for the <em>de novo</em> synthesis of sugars; this pathway revolves around the activity of the enzyme RuBisCO. When plants are subject to Mg limiting conditions, development as well as yield is reduced. The foliar resupply of Mg, contrary to traditional resupply to the roots, has the advantage of delivering the element directly to the site of highest physiological demand. Thus, the aim of this research is to compare the effects of both resupply methods on the physiology and nutritional status of Mg-deficient plants to see whether foliar application compared to root fertilization can properly improve plant growth after Mg deficiency conditions.<br>Maize plants were cultivated in hydroponics in order to set up a Mg deficient root environment. MgSO<sub>4</sub> was then resupplied alternatively to the leaves or to the root.<br> Under Mg-limiting conditions, RuBisCO abundance, as well as the total content of Mn, Zn, Fe, and Cu were severely reduced. This state was significantly ameliorated by the foliar resupply of MgSO<sub>4</sub>, although the highest increase in biomass production was observed in response to root resupply. The foliar resupply of MgSO<sub>4</sub> upregulated the process of photosynthesis in Mg-deprived plants. In this context, the foliar MgSO<sub>4</sub> application was able to return RuBisCO abundance to control levels in Mg-deficient plants.</p> Julian Wolf Stefanie thor Straten Britta Pitann Karl H. Mühling ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-10 2019-10-10 92 274 280 10.5073/JABFQ.2019.092.038 Accumulation of carbohydrates and pungent principles in characteristic seed and set grown onion varieties (Allium cepa L.) <p>The profile of carbohydrates of onions (<em>Allium cepa</em> L.), mainly consisting of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), has a strong impact on digestibility, processability and storability. This study focused on the accumulation of FOS and pungent principles in onions during bulb maturation. Different onion varieties were grown from both, seeds<br>and sets. Total FOS concentrations in onions of cv. ‘Sturon’ were higher when grown from sets than from seeds throughout the entire maturation period, reaching final levels of 75.7 ± 2.2 and 61.8 ± 11.8 g/L FOS, respectively. Higher levels in set grown onions might be due to their earlier emergence, thus resulting in an extended photosynthetically active period (+12% total sunshine hours). However, seed grown, so-called dehydrator onions (cv. ‘Stardust’) had significantly higher FOS contents than set grown cv. ‘Sturon’ onions at all sampling points (final FOS level: 129.3 ± 16.6 g/L), indicating cultivar-dependant accumulation. Furthermore, dehydrator onions accumulated FOS with highest molecular weight and a unique FOS distribution, allowing clear discrimination of such dehydrator cultivars. Besides carbohydrates, pungency as indicated by pyruvic acid levels was shown to be determined by sulphurous fertilization and its timing.</p> Tobias Pöhnl Natalia Minor Reinhold Carle Ralf Schweiggert ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-09 2019-10-09 92 267 273 10.5073/JABFQ.2019.092.037 Calcium availability regulates antioxidant system, physio-biochemical activities and alleviates salinity stress mediated oxidative damage in soybean seedlings <p>Salinity is considered as one of the devastating abiotic stress factors and global climate change has further worsened the situation. Present experiments were aimed to evaluate the role of calcium (Ca) availability on growth and salinity tolerance mechanisms in soybean. Seedlings were grown with (2 mM Ca) and without Ca supplementation and modulation in key physiological and biochemical parameters were studied. Salinity (100 mM NaCl) stress resulted in growth reduction in terms of height and biomass accumulation, which was more pronounced in Ca-deficient plants. Relative to control (Ca deficient) and NaCl stressed plants, Ca supplemented seedlings exhibited higher relative water content, pigment synthesis and the photosynthetic efficiency. Ca availability affected the synthesis of proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugars under normal and saline growth conditions. Optimal Ca supplementation up-regulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes assayed and the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione, and tocopherol) thereby reflecting in amelioration of NaCl induced oxidative damage. Moreover, increased accumulation of phenols due to Ca supplementation and the amelioration of NaCl mediated decline if nitrate reductase activity was observed. More importantly, Ca availability reduced the accumulation of Na under control and NaCl stressed conditions restricting the damging effects on metabolism. Availability of optimal Ca potentially regulates the salinity tolerance mechanisms in soybean by maintaining osmoregulation and antioxidant metabolism.</p> Amr Adel Elkelish Taghreed S. Alnusaire Mona H. Soliman Salah Gowayed Hoda H. Senousy Shah Fahad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-09 2019-10-09 92 258 266 10.5073/JABFQ.2019.092.036 Acaulospora aspera, a new fungal species in the Glomeromycetes from rhizosphere soils of the inka nut (Plukenetia volubilis L.) in Peru <p>A new fungal species of the Glomeromycetes, <em>Acaulospora aspera</em>, was isolated from the rhizosphere of the inka nut (<em>Plukenetia volubilis</em>) in San Martín State of Peru (Western Amazonia) and propagated in bait cultures on <em>Sorghum</em> spp., <em>Brachiaria brizantha</em>, <em>Medicago sativa</em> and <em>P. volubilis</em> as host plants. The fungus forms brownish yellow to yellow brown spores, (120-)135-195 × (120-)130-187 μm in diameter. The surface of the structural spore wall layer is crowded with small depressions, 0.4-0.7 μm in diameter, up to 0.8 μm deep, and only 1.1-1.8 apart, giving the spore surface a rough, washboardlike appearance, especially when the outermost, evanescent wall layer has disappeared. Phylogenetically, the new species is close to <em>A. spinosissima</em>, <em>A. excavata</em> and to other morphologically more similar species such as <em>A. spinosa</em> and <em>A. tuberculata</em>, which form spiny or tuberculate projections on the outermost, semi-persistent spore wall layer, or <em>A. herrerae</em>, <em>A. kentinensis</em>, <em>A. scrobiculata</em> and <em>A. minuta</em>, which on the structural spore wall layer all have more pronunced pits than<em> A. aspera</em>. In this study, also the name of <em>A. spinosissima</em> was validated, as it had been preliminary declared invalid because of a typing error in the diagnosis section of its original description.</p> Mike Anderson Corazon-Guivin Agustin Cerna-Mendoza Juan Carlos Guerrero-Abad Adela Vallejos-Tapullima Gladstone Alves Silva Fritz Oehl ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-09 2019-10-09 92 250 257 10.5073/JABFQ.2019.092.035