Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality <p>This journal is published in collaboration with the German Society for Quality Research on Plant Foods and the Section Applied Botany of the German Botanical Society. It focuses on applied research in plant physiology and plant ecology, plant biotechnology, plant breeding and cultivation, phytomedicine, plant nutrition, plant stress and resistance, plant microbiology, plant analysis (including -omics techniques), and plant food chemistry.</p> en-US <p>From Volume 92 (2019) on, the content of the journal is licensed under the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License</a>. Any user is free to share and adapt (remix, transform, build upon) the content as long as the original publication is attributed (authors, title, year, journal, issue, pages) and any changes are labelled.</p> <p>The copyright of the published work remains with the authors. If you want to use published content beyond what the CC-BY license permits, please contact the corresponding author, whose contact information can be found on the last page of the respective article. In case you want to reproduce content from older issues (before CC BY applied), please contact the&nbsp;corresponding author to ask for permission.</p> (Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality) (Heike Riegler) Mon, 28 Jan 2019 16:16:19 +0100 OJS 60 Salicylic acid and proline enhance water use efficiency, antioxidant defense system and tissues' anatomy of wheat plants under field deficit irrigation stress <p>Salicylic acid or proline enhances plant performance and encourages resistance to abiotic stress in plants. This investigation tests the influence of soaking kernels in salicylic acid (0.1 mM) or proline (10 mM) on the growth and performance of wheat plants grown in open field under full irrigation (100% of ETc) or deficit irrigation (50% of ETc). The results revealed that plants under field deficit irrigation (FDI) stress showed a decline in growth, kernel yield, relative water content, total content of chlorophylls and carotenoids, as well as negative changes in the anatomy of leaf and stem. Addition of salicylic acid or proline notably increased water use efficiency (WUE) and mitigated the stress created by FDI. Field deficit irrigation stress greatly increased electrolyte leakage, total soluble phenols, proline, and total soluble sugar contents and activities of enzymes SOD, CAT, and POX. Salicylic acid was the more efficient in mitigating FDI stress than proline. The results conclude that salicylic acid, as a growth regulator, could be used to alleviate the negative effect of limited water-availability in soil on wheat as well as improving the growth and yield of the crop.</p> Ramadan Agami, Saad Alamri, Taa Abd El-Mageed, M.S.M. Abousekken, Mohamed Hashem Copyright (c) 2019 The Author(s) Thu, 19 Dec 2019 08:46:23 +0100 Response surface methodology: An optimal design applied for maximum ultrasound-assisted extraction efficiency of phenolic acids from Coriandrum sativum L. <p>In this study, a combined three-factors-three-level Box-Behnken design with a response surface methodology was used to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of bound phenolic acids from coriander fruits. Temperature (X1, 20-60 °C), sonication time (X2, 15-45 min) and NaOH concentration (X3, 2-4 M) were studied as independent variables in order to obtain the optimal extraction conditions. For this purpose, a two-step analytical procedure was applied: first, alkaline hydrolysis and extraction under the influence of ultrasound was performed followed by a clean-up step using solid-phase extraction method. After derivatisation, the extracted phenolic acids were analysed using GC-MS. The interrelationship between the dependent and operational variables were well fitted (R2 &gt;0.90) to the quadratic term models. The results obtained in this study confirmed that studied factors had a significant influence on phenolic acids extraction recovery. In favour of maximum extraction yields, the following experimental conditions are suggested: a sonication time of 17.4 min at 35.3°C and with a NaOH concentration of 2.02 M. These results can be utilized for further isolation of active phenolic compounds from other parts of coriander plant as well as for phenolic acids study over various plant materials from the Apiaceae family.</p> Milena Ivanovic, Maša Islamčević Razboršek, Iztok Jože Košir, Mitja Kolar Copyright (c) 2019 The Author(s) Wed, 18 Dec 2019 11:20:57 +0100 Agro-morphological changes caused by the accumulation of lead in Corchorus olitorius, a leafy vegetable with phytoremediation properties <p>Lead (Pb) can enter the food chain through the consumption of contaminated plants and can cause serious health issues. However, research on how Pb accumulation affects morphology of leafy vegetables in South Africa is minimal. This study tested the effect of lead accumulation on vegetative and reproductive traits of <em>Corchorus olitorius</em>.<br>Plants were grown under varying Pb concentrations, and studied for their variation in vegetative and reproductive traits as well as Pb accumulation in leaves, stems and roots. Plants grown within allowable soil concentrations of 150 mg kg–1 Pb accumulated toxic (≥ 10 mg kg–1) Pb in all plant parts without causing any morphological defect, except for a decrease in chlorophyll content. Minor reductions in growth and yield were evident only at 900-1000 mg kg–1 concentration. Pb accumulation increased as its concentration increased in the soil, with a higher accumulation in roots in comparison to aerial parts. In conclusion, <em>C. olitorius</em> can grow and reproduce under toxic Pb levels (≥ 300 mg kg–1) and accumulate toxic amounts of Pb (≥ 10 mg kg–1) without visible morphological defects. Therefore, it is suitable for phytoremediation but unsafe for consumption when it is collected from sites prone to Pb contamination.</p> Sibongokuhle Ndlovu, Rajasekhar VSR Pullabhotla, Nontuthuko Rosemary Ntuli Copyright (c) 2019 The Author(s) Fri, 13 Dec 2019 09:31:53 +0100 Salicylic acid alleviates chilling injury in cold-stored ‘Huangguan’ pear <p>Chilling injury (CI) often occurs in ‘Huangguan’ pear (<em>Pyrus bretschneideri</em> Rehd) at low temperature storage, which is characterized by brown spot on the fruit surface. In this study, the ‘Huangguan’ pear fruit was soaked either with salicylic acid (SA) or distilled water (control) and subsequently stored at 0 ℃. The results showed that 5 mM and 10 mM SA treatments significantly reduced the CI index of the fruit compared with the control, but had no significant effect on fruit firmness, soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acid (TA) content. Further study on the mechanism of CI showed that 5 mM SA treatment increased the content of SA in peel, enhanced the activities of ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced the accumulation of phenols in the later stage, decreased the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) before the occurrence of CI, inhibited the expression of PPO1 and PPO5 genes in peel, and significantly down-regulated expression of LOX1 and PLD4, which code for lipoxygenase and phospholipase D, respectively. These results indicated that SA treatment increased the antioxidant capacity of the peel, inhibited the degradation of cell membrane lipids, reduced the appearance of brown spot on the fruit surface and alleviated CI during cold storage in ‘Huangguan’ pear.</p> Yeqing Guan, Chuangqi Wei, Yudou Cheng, Junfeng Guan Copyright (c) 2019 The Author(s) Fri, 13 Dec 2019 09:24:50 +0100 Chemical composition of field grown radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) as influenced by season and moderately reduced water supply <p>Seasonal variations in water availability as increasingly provoked by climate change pose severe challenges for vegetable production, particularly for crops requiring reliable and high water supply for achieving satisfactory quality. In contrast to most previous studies applying severe water deficits, we examined the effects of moderate water deficits on the chemical composition of red radish roots during three consecutive years with variable climatic conditions. Radish were cultivated in open field, applying two different water supply treatments and following a randomized block design comprising four sets of six plots each. The resulting water reductions of 3-20&nbsp;% led to a significant increase of dry matter-based <em>myo</em>-inositol levels, whereas those of selected minerals and trace elements, phenolics and glucosinolates decreased. Anthocyanin levels remained unchanged. Fresh-matter related levels of most analytes increased upon reduced water treatments due to higher dry matter contents. While pigment levels in radish remained unchanged, mild water deficit affected other quality-related parameters such as pungency-related glucosinolates.</p> Christine Beatrix Schlering, Helmut Dietrich, Matthias Frisch, Monika Schreiner, Ralph Schweiggert, Frank Will, Jana Zinkernagel Copyright (c) 2019 The Author(s) Thu, 12 Dec 2019 15:21:25 +0100