Spatial distribution of stored grain insects in a rice storage and processing facility in Brazil
AbstractThis study describes the spatial distribution of stored product insects captured biweekly using foodbaited cage traps in a large rice storage and processing facility, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Monitoring started in August 2009 and will be carried out for 1 year, the first 5 months of sampling being presented in this study. From end of August 2009 until the end of December 2009, a total of 9893 insects were captured in the 99 cage traps. The most abundant species were: Carpophilus spp. (76%), Typhaea stercorea (8.6%), Ahasverus advena (5.5%), Tribolium castaneum (2.3%), Sitophilus oryzae (2%), Sitophilus zeamais (1.5%), Ephestia spp. (1.2 %), Cryptolestes ferrugineus (1%), Rhyzopertha dominica (0.64%), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (0.6%), Anthicus floralis (0.4%), Lasioderma serricorne (0.25%). The first two species, which make up for 84.6% of the insects collected, are not considered pests in stored grain, rather are attracted by moldy material present in residues or even in the bait material. The other insects, including primary and secondary species, comprised about 15% of the total trapped. The spatial distribution of the most important species infesting rice grain and of the total insect number was analyzed using Surfer 6.04 (Golden software, Golden, CO, USA) and contour maps were constructed to target areas for sanitation. Except for trap 66, located by the rice hulk storage box, the spatial distribution we observed using the contour maps showed that the greatest number of insects was mostly captured in cages placed in the receiving area, around the dryers, as well as outside of the structure where grain residues frequently accumulate. As indicated on the maps for total number of insects, a few isolated infested spots were detected. The parboiled rice area had the least amount of insects, except for trap 61, placed outside the structure. The population of primary and the most important secondary insect species, as well as the overall number of insects, decreased after sanitation and physical control measures were applied. Our observations confirm that insect monitoring is an essential tool for targeting and evaluating the control measures adopted in the quality program of rice storage and processing facilities.
Keywords: Insect monitoring; Spatial distribution; Stored grain pests; Stored rice
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