Investigation of the semiochemicals of confused flour beetle <i>Tribolium confusum</i> Jaquelin du Val and grain weevil <i>Sitophilus granarius</i> (L.) in stored wheat grain and flour

  • N. A. Abuelnnor Center for Research in Analytical, Material and Sensor Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK, Email: Nagat2. Abuelnnor@uwe.ac.uk)
  • P. R. H. Jones Center for Research in Analytical, Material and Sensor Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK,
  • N. M. Ratcliffe Center for Research in Analytical, Material and Sensor Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK,
  • B. De Lacy Costello Center for Research in Analytical, Material and Sensor Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK,
  • P. T. N. Spencer-Phillips Centre for Research in Plant Science

Abstract

This investigation sets out to identify specific volatile compounds from both flour infested with the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum and wheat grain infested with the grain weevil, Sitophilus granarius. These volatiles could help to aid the early detection of infestation by these pests. Volatiles by the infestation of these insect pests were entrained and analysed using Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Several volatile compounds were identified specific to T. confusum and S. granarius, including the known semiochemicals of T. confusum. The T. confusum larvae specifically emitted the volatiles 1-octen-3-one, benzeneacetaldehyde and decanal, whilst the adults specifically emitted the volatiles 2-methyl and 2- ethyl-1,3-benzenediols, the known semiochemicals 1-pentadecene, 2-methyl and 2-ethyl-1,4- benzoquinones and a series of yet to be fully identified unsaturated hydrocarbons. Both T. confusum adults and larvae emitted 2-methylbutanal and 2-butanone. Furthermore, four volatiles were identified unique to flour infested by T. confusum, 3-penten-2-one, 3-octanone, 2-octenal and 2-butyl-1-octanol. The S. granarius adults specifically emitted the volatiles 2-methylpropanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid, whilst infested wheat grain produced the following volatile organic compounds, 2-methylfuran, 2- ethylfuran, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2-ethyl-2-pentenal and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine. We believe these specific volatiles may act as semiochemicals for these insects and could aid in semiochemical monitoring for the early detection of infestation by these insects.

Keywords: Tribolium confusum, Sitophilus granarius, GC-MS, SPME, Semiochemicals.

Veröffentlicht
2010-09-02