Julius-Kühn-Archiv https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA <p>Im Julius-Kühn-Archiv werden Konferenzbeiträge und umfangreiche wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen veröffentlicht, welche die vielfältigen Forschungsgebiete des Julius Kühn-Instituts rund um die Kulturpflanze widerspiegeln. Dazu zählen Pflanzenbau, Pflanzenzüchtung und Pflanzenschutz, aber auch die Prüfung und Zulassung von Pflanzenschutzmitteln und Pflanzenschutzgeräten sowie der Vorratsschutz.</p> de-DE Julius-Kühn-Archiv 1868-9892 <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-sa/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons Lizenzvertrag" /></a><br />Dieses Werk ist lizenziert unter einer <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.de" rel="license">Creative Commons Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 4.0 International Lizenz</a>.</p><h3>Sie dürfen:</h3><ul class="license-properties"><li class="license share"><strong>Teilen</strong> — das Material in jedwedem Format oder Medium vervielfältigen und weiterverbreiten</li></ul><ul><li class="license commercial"><strong>Bearbeiten</strong> — das Material remixen, verändern und darauf aufbauen und zwar für beliebige Zwecke</li></ul><div id="deed-conditions"><h3>Unter folgenden Bedingungen:</h3><ul class="license-properties" style="text-align: left;" dir="ltr"><li class="license by"><p><strong>Namensnennung</strong> — <span>Sie müssen <span class="helpLink">die Namen der Autoren und den Titel des Werkes angeben</span></span>, einen Link zur Lizenz beifügen und anmerken, ob <span><span class="helpLink">Änderungen vorgenommen</span></span> wurden.</p></li></ul><ul><li><strong>Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen</strong> — Wenn Sie das Material remixen, verändern oder anderweitig direkt darauf aufbauen, dürfen Sie Ihre Beiträge nur unter <span class="helpLink">derselben Lizenz</span> wie das Original verbreiten.</li></ul><ul><li><strong>Keine weiteren Einschränkungen</strong> — Sie dürfen keine zusätzlichen Klauseln oder <span class="helpLink">technische Verfahren</span> einsetzen, die anderen rechtlich irgendetwas untersagen, was die Lizenz erlaubt.</li></ul></div> Preface https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10588 Julia Klöckner ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 463 Preface https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10590 Cornel Adler ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 463 II II Preface https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10591 James E. Throne ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 463 III III Organizing Committee https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10592 - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 463 IV VII Permanent Committee of IWCSPP of 2018 https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10593 - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 463 VIII VIII IWCSPP, Past Conferences and Proceedings https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10594 - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 463 IX IX Table of contents https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10595 - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 463 X XXXII Index of Authors https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10596 - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 463 XXXIII XLI Julius-Kühn-Archiv 463 Volume I https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10735 - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 3 548 Food Safety and Global Challenges to Stored Product Protection – A WFP Perspective https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10598 Isabella Mballa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 463 3 4 10.5073/jka.2018.463.001 Food waste and food losses - Importance of international partnerships and research https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10599 Friedrich Wacker ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 463 4 4 10.5073/jka.2018.463.002 Stop the brain drain – Why we need stored-product protection research for food safety https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10600 <p>In the history of human development, stored-product protection (SPP) is probably older than the invention of agriculture because even what was hunted and gathered needed to be stored to provide food for the bad days. One may think that the human race had enough time to find out everything that could be found out on SPP. But this is not the case. SPP problems often require a solution custom-made for the given product or storage situation, climate, socio-economic background, etc. Modern SPP research in the Americas, Asia, Europe, or Oceania was often started as a result of World War I or II, when hunger was an issue. But, with the absence of hunger, we witness another scary development: SPP research is dying out, institutions are closed down, e.g., CSL UK 2009, SGRL Australia 2009, DPIL Denmark 2010, INRA France 2015. Yes, research costs money. But, do we take into account that climate change may already have led to increased numbers of conflicts and increased mobility? That a lack of food safety can tear apart all advances of civilization and culture in the brink of a moment? Why are there no calls for SPP research under Horizon 2020? What happened to the Millenium Goal to cut down hunger by 50%? The FAO states that one third of our grains are lost between harvest and consumption. It is high time to improve food storages and SPP methods using all knowledge and technology available in order to reduce losses, it is high time to support international SPP research!</p> Cornel Adler ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 463 5 8 10.5073/jka.2018.463.003 Counting losses to cut losses: quantifying legume postharvest losses to help achieve food and nutrition security https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10601 <p>Projections suggest that by 2050 global food production will need to have increased by 70% to meet food demands associated with the world’s population growth. Such forecasts, alongside growing awareness of the socio-ecological costs of food loss, and political ramifications of food crises have seen postharvest loss (PHL) reduction reappearing as a development priority. Particularly so in sub-Saharan Africa, a region deemed highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, where 307 million people are already affected by severe food insecurity, and the population is projected to double by 2050. Targets for reduced PHL are emphasised in the African Union’s Malabo Declaration and Sustainable Development Goal 12.3. However, crop postharvest systems are complex and losses occur in various ways at different activity stages and due to a host of diverse reasons. To better target and prioritise loss reduction investments and policies we need to understand how much food is being lost postharvest, where, and why. The African Postharvest Losses Information Systems (APHLIS), brought a rigorous knowledge management approach to cereal PHLs. We are now expanding this to include key legume and other crops and estimates of the nutritional and financial values of these losses. The scientific literature was screened to build profiles of the PHLs occurring along the value chains, and combined with contextual information, to provide science-based estimates of PHLs where direct measurements are not available. We discuss these legume PHL profiles and the related opportunities and knowledge gaps.</p> Tanya Stathers Kukom Edoh Ognakossan Jan Priebe Brighton M. Mvumi Bruno M. D. Tran ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 463 8 18 10.5073/jka.2018.463.004 Food fights for life: Food diplomacy for food security https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10602 <p>Stored food production is critical to food security. Food security refers to the physical availability of, the economic and physical access to, and the ability to utilize food (FAO, 2008, available at; <a href="http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al936e/al936e00.pdf">http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al936e/al936e00.pdf</a>). Stored food production is a vital link in that chain: enabling the protection of (surplus) harvest to be made available when needed. Indeed, the means of stored food production constitutes an incentive for (surplus) harvest itself. However, food, food security, and alongside both, food diplomacy are not only practical concerns and challenges but also political. Furthermore, the politics of food are intrinsically related to health security, water security, and climate security, issues with increasing effects across the globe if at different orders of magnitude. Food insecurity may be measured higher in arid regions without adequate water and harvests and storage, but it also exists in ‘urban deserts’ without affordable access to (fresh) produce. In this presentation, I outline a cartography to depict the interconnections between local and global food securities using the characterization of diplomacy of food and for food, and food science for diplomacy. The aim is to enhance exchange of ideas and experiences to benefit food security – and reduced waste – in both food secure and food insecure settings.</p> Annamarie Bindenagel Šehović ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 463 18 20 10.5073/jka.2018.463.005 On farm grain storage – potential opportunity or risk- meeting the demands of food safety and quality, an Australian perspective https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10603 <p>Traceability, product identity, food safety and quality assurance are increasingly required by end users and customers. The Australian on farm storage system has a unique opportunity to deliver grain to meet these requirements, provided the system is set up and managed to ensure the end product meets the market requirement. <br>Australian grain growers are becoming more aware of the changing nature of markets and their requirements, and the importance of managing storage to meet food safety requirements. With the increasing change in storage dynamics in Australia from a central receival system to a range of storage entities, of which on farm storage is becoming a major player, there is a growing need for the grains industry to ensure all who can affect grain quality and food safety are aware of and can meet their obligations. <br>There are many challenges for Australian growers to manage; including managing existing facilities, investing in new facilities, managing insects, managing grain quality and ensuring treatments are used in accordance with best practice. Despite these challenges, there are many opportunities and potential for the on-farm storage system to meet the demands required of them to deliver a quality and food safe product to the end-user. <br>This paper discusses the on-farm grain storage system, management of and the opportunity and risks for growers and end users to work together to ensure a quality and food safe product is delivered to the end-user. <br>Traceability, product identity, food safety and quality assurance are increasingly required by end users and customers. The on farm storage system has a unique opportunity to deliver grain to meet these requirements, provided the system is set up and managed to do this in collaboration with the end user and market. <br>Whilst grain growers are aware of the changing nature of markets and their requirements, it is fair to say food safety and how they might affect this is relatively new in their thinking. With the increasing change in storage dynamics from a central receival system to a range of storage entities, of which on farm storage is becoming a major player, there is a growing need for the grains industry to ensure all who can affect grain quality and food safety are aware of and can meet their obligations. <br>There are many challenges for growers to manage; including managing existing facilities, investing in new facilities, managing insects, managing grain quality and ensuring treatments are used in accordance with best practice. <br>Despite these challenges, there are many opportunities and potential for the on-farm storage system to meet the demands required of them to deliver a quality and food safe product to the enduser and customer. <br>This paper discusses the on-farm grain storage system, management of the system and the opportunity and risks for growers and end users to work together to ensure a quality and food safe product is delivered to the enduser and customer.</p> Peter Botta Judy Bellati ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 463 21 23 10.5073/jka.2018.463.006 Strengthening national food safety for improved food security in Nigeria https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10604 <p>A review of literature concerning the quality and safety of eight key staple products in Nigeria, West Africa, was made. These products included stored rice, maize, cashew, yam, cassava, millet, sorghum, and beans. Food safety notifications, both national and international concerning mycotoxins, pesticides, and quality in these foods are highlighted. Across these commodities, a significant number of non-conformances were found, arising from a combination of factors including lack of technical knowledge, supply chain management, and public institutional and policy challenges. The paper discusses the subsequent impact on health, well-being, and the economy. Current strategies aimed at improving food quality and safety in the country was also examined. Recommendations in addressing some significant issues are given.</p> Louise Abayomi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 463 23 26 10.5073/jka.2018.463.007 Insect pests and fungal pathogens in maize stored in Ghana https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10605 <p>Insect infestations and mycotoxin contamination contribute to postharvest degradation and crop loss in sub- Saharan Africa, including maize stored in Ghana. Surveys were conducted to assess the prevalence of insect pests and fungal pathogens in stored maize from the major and minor cropping seasons (September to December and January to April, respectively) that was stored on-farm and in retail markets in Ghana. Results show differences between the major and minor storage seasons for on-farm sites and retail markets. The presence of internal feeders such as <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> (Motschulsky) was positivly correlated with insect-damaged kernels and percentage weight loss. Levels of aflatoxin were generally greater than the established threshold of 15 ppb early in the major crop storage season, while fumonisins were generally lower than threshold levels of 4.0 ppm in on-farm sites and in the retail markets.</p> James K. Danso Enoch A. Osekre George P. Opit Naomi Manu Pail R. Armstrong Frank H. Arthur James F. Campbell George N. Mbata Samuel G. McNeill ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 463 27 31 10.5073/jka.2018.463.008 Low-cost instrument to measure equilibrium moisture content of bagged and bulked grain https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10611 Paul R. Armstrong Samuel G. McNeill Bhadriraju Subramanyam Joseph O. Akowuha James Danso Kofi Naomi Manu Enoch A. Osekre George Opit Frank H. Arthur James F. Campbell ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 31 33 10.5073/jka.2018.463.009 Stored Grain Protection: cases studies in Portugal https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10612 <p>Considering the edibility of insects’ species associated with storage ecosystem, chemical control methods can be easily replaced by environmental and economically sustainable alternatives. <br>Use of biogenerated atmospheres is an inexpensive method that tolerates insect presence. In Portugal, during one year, hermetic bags were used to store paddy under 65-75-85% relative humidity (RH) and 14-17-24ºC temperatures. Brown rice infested with <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> adults was placed inside the hermetic bags. <br>Biogenerated atmosphere was naturally produced inside the hermetic bag, at 85% RH, with low O<sub>2</sub> and high CO<sub>2</sub> contents, showing that <em>S. zeamais</em> can survive but has no progeny at 14º-17ºC, or attained 100% mortality before producing progeny at 24ºC. The most abundant fungi isolated were <em>Alternaria alternata</em> and <em>Epicoccum nigrum</em>. The results showed the importance of the RH on changes in atmospheric gas content of paddy, due to biological agents’ activity. <br>Analysing the edibility of insects species associated with stored grain, preliminary studies were carried out to evaluate the nutritional value of immatures stages of <em>Tribolium castaneum</em>. Larvae of <em>T. castaneum</em> had a content of 21.4% protein, 9.1% lipids, 8.8% fiber, and a relevant content of eight essential amino acids and also manganese and copper. The edibility of insects must be consider given their high nutritional value, low emissions of Green House Gases (GHGs), low requirements for land, and by reducing and mitigating the need for chemical control.</p> Maria Otilia Carvalho Ana Filipa Cambeiro Patricia Fradinho Ana Magro Bárbara Teixeira Rogério Mendes Miguel Pedro Mourato ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 33 41 10.5073/jka.2018.463.010 Survey of dermestids of the genus Trogoderma in grain storages in Spain https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10613 Jordi Riudavets Nuria Agusti Pedro del Estal Cristina Castañé ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 41 42 10.5073/jka.2018.463.011 Performance assessment off a commercial scale solar biomass hybrid dryer for quality seed maize production https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10614 <p>Though several maize varieties have been developed and introduced over the years in Ghana, farmers still face challenges of access to quality seed maize. Among the major constraints is lack of proper drying systems to quarantee quality of seed produced. Peculiar to most parts of Africa, drying of maize in the open, on bare ground along shoulders of roads is still a common practice in Ghana. In this study, a 5-tonne capacity solar biomass hybrid dryer was developed for drying maize for seed and food/feed in Ghana. Effect of drying air temperature in the dryer on the physiological quality and germination of maize kernels was investigated. Maize grains were dried in the open sun simulating farmers practice and using the dryer at 4 varying levels (L1, L2, L3 and L4) with corresponding heights (0.6m, 1.2m, 1.8m and 2.4m) respectively. Harvested maize at 22.8% moisture content was dried at the varying levels until reaching overall mean moisture content of 12.8 ± 0.2% (wb). Results showed that, drying air temperatures in the dryer increased in accordance with height with lowest mean temperature of 44.4 ± 4.6°C recorded at L1 and mean maximum of 52.8 ± 5.4 °C at L4. The increase in drying temperature at L4 increased kernel stress crack index by an average of 14% and reduced germination by 33%. However, drying temperatures at L1-L3 and in the open sun had no significant effect (p &gt; 0.05) on the germination potential of maize grains. This satisfies the dryer’s potential to be used for drying maize grains for high quality seed production on commercial scale.</p> Joseph O. Akowuah Dirk E. Maier George Opit Samuel G. McNeill Paul Armstrong Carlos A. Campabadal Kingsly Ambrose ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 42 49 10.5073/jka.2018.463.012 Evaluation of AgroZ Hermetic Storage Bag against insect pests on stored maize https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10616 <p>A study on AgroZ airtight bag was conducted against two major storage insects under simulated farmers' storage practice. Two (2) lots of 50kg white maize of Pioneer variety were put into AgroZ bag and polypropylene woven bag to serve as a control. Four replications of each bag type were used. In each bag, 50 adults of unsexed larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus, and maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, each were introduced. AgroZ bag had one liner placed inside polypropylene bag to provide support and handling convenience. Each liner had been tested for air tightness before use. The AgroZ bags were securely tied to ensure airtightness thus leading to a hermetic environment. The bags were then randomly placed in a barn on pallets in a randomised complete design (RCD). Sampling was done every 4 weeks up to 24 weeks. A 500g sample was initially taken using a compartmented long spear probe from each bag for baseline data, and subsequent ones at 4, 8, 12, 20 and 24 weeks. Repeated sampling from the same storage device reflected farmer practices of opening the device at regular intervals to draw grain for use as household food. Gas analysis in AgroZ bags showed oxygen level dropping rapidly to 7% within 4 weeks and later increased gradually to 10% at 12 weeks. Conversely, carbon dioxide level increased sharply to 10% and declined gradually to 9% over the same period. The number of insects and percentage damaged grains between AgroZ bag and polypropylene bag significantly differed from 12th week to 24th week. AgroZ bag outperformed the polypropylene bag commonly used by farmers and conveniently protected maize from insect infestation within the 6-month storage period.</p> Kimondo Mutambuki Paddy Likhayo John Mbugua T. Warigia ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 49 55 10.5073/jka.2018.463.013 Impact of rodent infestation on availability, safety and nutritional value of maize stored on-farm in lowland tropical zone of Kenya https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10617 Christopher Mutungi K. Edoh-Ognakossan H. Affognon ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 55 55 10.5073/jka.2018.463.014 Postharvest losses of agricultural commodities in Trincomalee, Sri Lanka https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10618 <p>In Sri Lanka, postharvest losses vary with the geographical area; higher losses are reported in warmer areas. A survey was conducted in Trincomalee district, one of the hottest areas in Sri Lanka, to ascertain the status of crop cultivation and postharvest losses of cultivated crops. Farming is the main livelihood of the people in the area. The main crops cultivated are paddy, red onion, chili, brinjal, tobacco and manioc; the average land extent possessed by a farmer family and the yield varies with the crop. Paddy, onion, and tobacco are stored for 6, 3, and 12 months, respectively. Paddy is stored indoor in bags, onion as racks (indoor), and tobacco as piles (indoor and outdoor) under shade conditions. During harvest, drying and storage losses occur in paddy and onion. <em>Sitophilus oryzae, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitotroga cerealella</em>, and rats are the major problems during paddy storage. Pesticides are not used regularly by the farmers. Instead they practice traditional pest management methods.</p> Dissanayaka Mudiyanselage Saman Kumara Dissanayaka Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage Prabodha Sammani Leanage Kanaka Wolly Wijayaratne Poorna Maheshika Samaranayaka Lakshan Madusanka Karunarathna Niwanthi Chandima Ishara Maduwanthi Wijerathna Sanjeewa Harshana Anupama Heshani Diluka Kalhari ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 55 57 10.5073/jka.2018.463.015 Abundance of insects in rice mills in Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10619 <p>Monitoring of insect population is a prerequisite for integrated pest management attempts. The complex structures/machines in rice milling facilities, however, limit surveying attempts aggravating the ignorance of insect fauna associated with such facilities. Furthermore, insect surveys conducted in Sri Lanka are very rare. The objective of the current study was to determine the presence, diversity, and abundance of insects in rice mills of varying capacity as found in a major rice processing area in Sri Lanka. A group of large-, medium-, and smallscale mills were used for the survey. Samples were collected from different locations in the mills, and the density of insects at each location was determined. Insect species and their abundance varied with the type of mill as well as with the location in the mill. This information is useful to design and implement pest management for the mills.</p> Panamulla Arachchige Hasitha Sajeewani Edirimunhie Vishwa Udani Perera Karunarathne Karyawasam Bovithanthri Thanushi Thamodhi Wijerathne Mahalekam Prasadi Samudika Mahalekam Mangappulige Dona Madhushika Chathurangie Rupasinghe Dissanayaka Mudiyanselage Saman Kumara Dissanayaka Leanage Kanaka Wolly Wijayaratne Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage Prabodha Sammani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 57 58 10.5073/jka.2018.463.016 Loss of animal feed due to infestation by <i>Rhyzopertha dominica</i> https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10620 <p>Despite the use of natural food for livestock production, different animal feeds are currently available at the market. Long-term storage of these animal feeds lead to deterioration and contamination by insects. Therefore, it is important that the loss of these animal feeds be determined and methods to control the damage be sought. This study was conducted to determine the loss of eleven types of animal feed commonly used in Sri Lanka due to infestation by <em>Rhyzopertha dominica</em>, a major granivorous insect species. <br>Twenty newly emerged adults of <em>R. dominica</em> were introduced separately to each animal feed: fish feed, rabbit feed, dog feed, cat feed, chick mash, grower mash, layer mash, broiler starter, broiler finisher, bird feed (Bajiri), and rice polish. Each animal feed was maintained either aerated or air tight. These parent adults were maintained for 21 days in the media under ambient environmental conditions (30°C, 65% relative humidity), and then removed. The progeny adults emerged in each feed sample were removed and the weight of the samples was determined at monthly intervals. In general, weight loss of animal feed varied with the feed type, duration of exposure, and aeration condition. Attention needs to be paid to protect those animal feeds that recorded higher losses due to R. dominica during storage.</p> Leanage Kanaka Wolly Wijayaratne Dissanayaka Mudiyanselage Saman Kumara Dissanayaka Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage Prabodha Sammani Rohan Harshalal Sarathchandra Rajapakse ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 59 60 10.5073/jka.2018.463.017 Quality and safety conditions of flocked oats (<i>Avena sativa</(i> L.) stored in bags https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10621 <p>Oats (<em>Avena sativa</em> L.) have reached the healthy food market worldwide due to its special nutrients composition and fiber high quality. Therefore, quality &amp; safety control is a must, both during the storage and commercialization stages. The current study evaluated the physicochemical characteristics (flakes size/variation %, pH, moisture content-mc, water activity-aw), living organisms (insects &amp; mites / mycoflora - fungi load&amp; genera identification), mycotoxins(ochratoxin A – OTA / zearalenone – ZON / aflatoxins – AFLs / esterigmatocistin – EST)andthe storage conditions of flocked oats stored inbags.Regarding the oats physicochemical characteristics, flakes particle size varied, however most of the samples present size uniformityand only one sample had high percentage of residue. That indicates high insects and other living organisms activity (consumption / proliferation) of oats starch and other nutrients. The analysis through stereomicroscope showed intense presence of insects and mites. Samples were seen also sheltering those living organisms (27%), which are not allowed by regulation (no soils, parasites and larvae presence). As expected, mc (10.8-13.2%) and/or aw (0.61-0.90) varied, however they kept on the safer levels (&lt; 13% / 0.90) insects/mites and fungi growth wise. With respect to pH, it varied from4.1to 5.85, indicating some rancidity/fermentation reactions taking place, thus changes in organoleptic parameters. The total fungi load ranged from 3x10<sup>2</sup> to 1.29x10<sup>5</sup> CFU/g, with <em>Aspergillus</em> and <em>Rhizopusthe</em> genera more identified. Only one sample was toxin contaminated (OTA - 80 µg/kg). Insects are known vectors of fungal spores and can spread their hyphae on their dead/live skeleton, apart from mites that can trigger allergies in humans and animals. Therefore, current data demonstrate that despite the storage conditions control application, living organisms can occur in flocked oats (stored in bags) and it is necessary to apply decontamination methods to control/prevent their proliferation.</p> Camila S. Martins Carlos E. da S. Soares Giovana de S. Maria Talane Klaumann Milena De O. D. Christiano W. R. Ribeiro Bárbara C. F. Ferreira Vildes M. Scussel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 60 65 10.5073/jka.2018.463.018 The impact of two drying methods on the quality of high-moisture rice https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10622 <p>In this experiment, freshly harvested rice was dried by natural and mechanical methods. For natural drying, paddy rice was spread on a cement floor under a shelter at a thickness of 4cm, and it was turned twice a day. At a temperature of 19.3°C and a relative humidity of 58.8%, a total of 28 days was needed to reduce the water content from 23.11 to 14.38%. For mechanical drying, the Guwang 5HXG-15B circulating dryer was used, drying temperature was set to 42°C, and it took a total of 5 hours to reduce the water content from 23.1 to 11.8%. The changes in spore count, fatty acid value, germination rate, waist burst rate, whole polished rice rate, and taste value of rice mold after drying were studied. The results showed that compared with mechanical drying, the drying rate of air-dried rice was slower, and the number of mold spores increased from 0.65×105/g to 3.05×105/g, a 3.7 times increase. The number of mold spores in dried rice was not significant. Dried rice fatty acid value of 25.1mg/100g for natural drying was higher than the value of 19.9mg/100g for mechanical drying. High temperature affected rice seed vigor: mechanically dried rice germination rate was 58.0%, far lower than the 87.5% for natural drying. The blasting rate, polished rice rate, and taste value of mechanically dried rice were 5.33%, 57.9%, and 83.7, respectively, which was 2.33%, 58.9%, and 89.3 for naturally-dried rice. The processing quality and taste quality were even worse. Therefore, the drying process of the optimized circulation dryer should be further adjusted to reduce its impact on rice processing quality and taste quality.</p> Panqiang Yuan Cao Yang Sicheng Yang Hulyi Zhao Mingyi Fei Hongqing Zhang Lin Tian Hao Zhang Yong Wang Dan Zheng ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 65 72 10.5073/jka.2018.463.019 Germination rates of frozen grain legume seeds in Cameroon https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10623 <p>A project on collection and conservation of genetic resources was carried out in Cameroon in 2014 in villages around Yaounde, Mbalmayo, and Ebolowa. Samples of all grain legume species cultivated by the farmers were collected from the 15th of March till early May 2015. Farmers in these zones cultivate mostly ground nuts, followed by soybean and cowpea. A total of 39, 13, and 45 samples were collected from Yaounde, Mbalmayo, and Ebolowa, respectively. After collection, samples were sun-dried, treated, labeled, plasticized, and stored in the freezer at -20oC in the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD) store room at Nkolbisson, Yaounde. A trial was carried out at IRAD Kumba experimental farms in 2016 to purify and maintain 14 cowpea and 12 groundnut samples from the freezer, under the C2D project. There were highly significant differences (P&lt; 0.05) amongst samples (treatments) for the germination rate. Cowpea samples had a germination rate ranging from 0.33 to 47.67%, while germination rates for groundnuts were between16.67 to 68.33%. Out of the 26 samples, only 5 (19%) had germination rates above 50%. Due to irregular power supply, freezing turned out to be an ineffective storage method for grain legume seeds. Seeds are now being maintained in vivo in small quantities and on seasonal basis which renders the job of plants breeders very difficult and ineffective. Alternatives storage methods and facilities for grains and seeds in developing countries like Cameroon remain an urgent need to boost research and ensure food security.</p> Atemkeng Maureen Fonji Neba A. Akongwi Christophe Owoma Owoma Odile Bassi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 72 75 10.5073/jka.2018.463.020 Bioefficacy of Cameroonian <i>Hemizygia welwitschii</i> Rolfe-Ashby (Lamiaceae) leaf powder against <i>Callosobruchus maculatus</i> Fabricius in stored cowpeas seeds https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10625 Gabriel Fotso Tagne Elias Nukenine Nchiwan Cornel Adler ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 76 76 10.5073/jka.2018.463.253 Insect infestation sources in stored maize grain; what is more important resident versus incoming infestation? https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10626 <p>Most studies targeted pest control inside stores; incognisant of the population dynamics in the store vicinity; leading to product re-infestation. Distinction between storage insect pest source and sink grain patches is important for effective pest management strategies. We examined the role of resident versus incoming insect infestation in phosphine-fumigated closed or open and unfumigated closed or open maize farm stores. Grain quality measurements were recorded over 32 weeks for two storage seasons. Whether open or closed, fumigated grain had significantly lower (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.001) grain damage and lower grain weight loss (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) than unfumigated grain. Fumigated open stores had significantly higher (<em>p</em>= 0.004) grain damage and weight loss than closed ones. Grain damage was higher in unfumigated-closed than fumigated-open, evidence that resident infestation inflicted higher food loss than incoming infestation. <em>Prostephanus truncatus, Cryptolestes ferrugineus</em> and <em>Tribolium castaneum</em> had significantly higher populations (p &lt; 0.001, p = 0.018 and p = 0.001; respectively) at bottom levels of unfumigated and fumigated grain (<em>T. castaneum</em>). <em>Sitotroga cerealella</em> and <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> were significantly higher (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.001) at the top of closed than open unfumigated compartments. Grain suffers less infestation and quality loss when it is a sink patch than when it is a source patch. Population build-up and ‘settling’ to inflict significant food loss takes longer for incoming compared to resident infestation. These results have ecological implications on postharvest IPM.</p> Honest Machekano Brighton M. Mvumi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 77 85 10.5073/jka.2018.463.021 Climate change and its implications on stored food grains https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10627 <p>Safe food grain storages are considered as a measure to adapt to the changing global climates and as a channel to food security, particularly in periods when agriculture fails. However, grain storage themselves can be heavily affected by changing global climates. One main aspect of the ‘climate change’ is the rise of global temperature that may lead to an increase in atmospheric humidity. This climate change, warm and humid, are not suitable for grain storage. At such a scenario, stored grain is at a risk due to the favorable conditions developed for the growth of insect pests. Predicting the future ecological impact of climate change drivers requires understanding how these same drivers have acted in the past on the dynamics of insect's population. In the past ten years there has been a detailed documentation on the biotic and abiotic conditions of two storage sites in Israel. This historical ecological data can reveal long-term consequences of multiple drivers of climate change. The changes can be evident at the level of the species and at the level of the societies of insect-pest in the grain storage. The differences between two storages located at different climate regions in Israel further predict the direction current IPM practice may lead to. Following this understanding, we hope to develop feasible mitigation strategies that might overcome the changes ahead of us.</p> Daphna Gottlieb Elazar Qvinn Mula Nega Aviv Rapaport Josef Doron Moshe Kostyukovsky ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 85 89 10.5073/jka.2018.463.022 Innovative stored plant products in Germany and the potential threat by native and invasive pest insects https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10628 <p>Climate change, economic-political developments as well as new trends in diet and in bio-economy considerably influence the assortment of cultivated plants in Germany and thereby, determine the plant products which have to be stored after harvest. In the light of the International Year of Pulses 2016 and also, as a result of the European Soya Declaration, the acreage cultivated with new plants such as pulses, stress tolerant wheat varieties and also oil seed rape expanded worldwide. Due to increasing stocks of novel commodities, the emergence of economically important insects infesting stored products and the possible risk caused by native and invasive pest species have to be generally considered during storage. In this overall context, we studied the capacity of various stored-product pest insects to infest two important pulses. In laboratory tests different varieties of soy and lupine have been offered as whole seeds, grist and flour to selected moth and beetle species common in Germany. Over 14 weeks we examined the developmental time from egg to eclosion as well as the number of adults in the F1 generation compared to control insects reared on their standard feeding substrate. First findings under laboratory conditions (20-25 °C, 65-70 % RH) indicate that these innovative stored products, and in particular its simply processed plant products are highly susceptible to moths (i.a. <em>Ephestia elutella, Plodia interpunctella</em>) and to a much lesser extent also to some beetle species (i.a. <em>Callosobruchus chinensis, Tribolium confusum</em>), but the usally recommended optimal storage conditions (T = 16 °C, RH = 65%) can prevent a loss of volume and quality.</p> Benjamin Fürstenau Kathrin Heindorf Cornel Adler Garnet M. Kroos ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 89 94 10.5073/jka.2018.463.023 Biological abilities of storage pests required for the successful penetration of food packages or seeds https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10629 <p>Storage pests cause enormous damage to stored seed commodities and packaged food. Most of the work published on pest risk assessment concentrates mainly on the effects of “pest –package” or “pest-seed” interactions: i.e. if some species is able (or not able) to penetrate in a sound kernel or package. Based on such “YES-NO outcomes”, the particular stored product pest species is then categorized to either as a “primary” or “secondary” seed feeder; or “penetrator” or “invader” of packages. However, less research attention is paid to the functional explanations of the observed interaction-outcomes. This work therefore deals with comparison of morphological adaptation in various species storage insects with regards to their penetration abilities. For this analysis our original data as well as data from literature were used. As the most important morphological (pre-) adaptations, modulating penetrative/invasive success of storage insect pests, have been recognized: (i) shape and hardness of mandibles, (ii) size and strength of mandibular muscles, (iii) morphology of tarsi enabling climbing and/or firm stance on smooth surfaces. In addition to the morphological adaptations the specific genetically pre-programmed behavioural patterns and abilities may also play a significant role. It will be demonstrated that the above morphological abilities must be taken into account while establishing standard methods of testing of various packages in terms of their sensitivity to penetration/invasion by various species s of storage pests.</p> Vaclav Stejskal Tomas Vendl Radek Aulicky ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 94 98 10.5073/jka.2018.463.024 Constraints in Grain quality management: A warehouse journey https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10630 <p>India produces about 150 million tons of food grains per year. The major components of production are 47 million tonnes of wheat, 64 million tonnes of rice, and 13 million tonnes of pulses. Seasonal fluctuations in harvesting of grains impose efficient design for long term storage. Quality of grains will be retained by proper storage. Post harvest processing and storage conditions such as temperature, humidity, aeration, insect infestation, rodents, fungus, etc., at a particular geographical location influence the qualitative and quantitative losses of grains. Approximately about 10% of produce wasted during post production such as harvesting, threshing, and storage which means that about 15 million tons of grains are being washed out per year. Main intention of any government in warehousing is to offer a safe buffer stock during off-season. Knowledge about existing storage criteria creates a vision to develop new strategies. Based on this concept, a compartment in a godown of dimension 37.2m x 24.2m x 8m made of concrete and asbestos roof, with six doors and thirty-four windows was selected for the research. The stacks of dimension 6.5m x 3.9m x 6.1m with two hundred and sixtyfour numbers of gunny bags filled with grains arranged above the wooden dunnage were selected for insect and chemical analysis. Temperature, humidity and aeration rate were recorded at four corners and at center of the stack and also at 26 different spots in whole godown. The influence of various factors on insect infestation in grains during storage was studied. The results will help to design an advanced scientific grain storage godown for safe storage of grains in gunny bags for longer duration.</p> M. Loganathan U. Akash R. Durgalakshmi C. Anandharamakrishnan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 98 100 10.5073/jka.2018.463.025 Modelling of population dynamics of insects in any ecosystem with several distributions of insect development: A Review https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10631 <p>Predicting the occurrence of insects with a high accuracy requires the estimation of insect development time and the variation among individuals for each life stage and species under different environmental conditions such as fluctuating temperature, variation of relative humidity, different body sizes and stages of the insects, levels of crowding, and food supply. This review summarized the modeling methods of population dynamics of insects with several distributions of insect development, assumption and prediction accuracy of these developed models, and disadvantages and advantages of these modelling methods. These modeling methods include degree day model, nonlinear model, and distribution delay models. The structure of most common models are cohort, Leslie matrix, simulation, and individual based. The relationships among the modeling assumptions, effects of temperature, and other environmental factors, and structures of the developed models were examined. A new modelling approach such as physiological-biological time scale and chaos theory was suggested.</p> Fuji Jian Digvir S. Jayas Paul G. Fields Noel D. G. White ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 100 107 10.5073/jka.2018.463.026 High quality genomic resources for stored product insects https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10632 <p>The expansion of genomic resources for stored product insects has largely been hampered by cost, time required for inbreeding, and technical issues that can arise during genome assembly from pooling multiple individuals together for DNA isolation and library preparation. However, newer library methods, such as 10X Chromium libraries, largely overcome these issues in that sufficient DNA can be recovered from a single individual for library prep and allelic variants are assembled as separate phase blocks, eliminating the need for inbreeding. Using 10X Chromium libraries coupled with 150 x 150 bp HiSeqX sequencing to a depth of at least 60X coverage, we are developing high quality draft genome assemblies for eight different stored product insect species, including Dermestidae (<em>Trogoderma variabile, Trogoderma granarium,</em> and <em>Dermestes maculatus</em>), Tenebrionidae (<em>Tribolium confusum)</em>, Anobiidae (<em>Lasioderma serricorne</em> and <em>Stegobium paniceum</em>), Bostrichidae (<em>Prostephanus truncatus</em>), and Pyralidae (<em>Plodia interpunctella</em>). Overall, BUSCO (Benchmarking Using Single Copy Orthologs) scores exceeded 95% in all assemblies with few fragmented or duplicated genes, suggesting a high quality assembly of the gene space. Further, scaffold N50s exceeded 1 Mb in many cases and further improvements to these scaffolding metrics will be made using linkage maps and Hi-C libraries. Overall, this approach will yield high quality assemblies for eight different insects and could be used to quickly and efficiently generate draft assemblies of invasive or emerging stored product pests.</p> Erin D. Scully Scott M. Gelb Sheina B. Sim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 107 113 10.5073/2018.463.027 DNA barcode of stored-product Pests based on Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10633 <p>The stored-product pests are economically important that can be spread through grain trade. Most storedproduct pests, including eggs, nymphs, and adults, are very small and difficult to identify morphologically. Also the classification and identification of them have always been hindered by the overwhelming number of species, widely distribution. Here, we collected 43 stored-product pests from 46 geographical locations in China and other countries. The mtDNA COI gene sequences were sequenced. Software MEGA 5 was used to analyze the sequence comploition and genetic distances. Three molecular phylogenetic trees of Platypodidae were recomstructed using PAUP4.0 according to distance/ the neighbour-joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP). The molecular results were compared with the morphological taxonomy. The interspecific genetic distance of the stored-product pests was significantly higher than the intraspecific genetic distance according to the barcoding gap analysis. This work provides a practical approach for the precise and rapid diagnosis of storedproduct pests.</p> Yi Wu Zhihong Li Fujun Li Václav Stejskal Dan Zheng Xin Chen Yang Cao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 113 117 10.5073/jka.2018.463.028 Effect of delayed mating on reproductive performance of <i>Lasioderma serricorne</i> (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10634 <p>With the ban of methyl bromide and the many problems associated with the use of other synthetic chemicals, current research have focused on non-chemical alternatives and integrated pest management approach for the control of stored product insect pests. Mating disruption is one technique being investigated for its effect on stored product insects. In this study, we determined the effect of age at mating on the reproductive rate and longevity of the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae). We disrupted the mating approach by delaying the insects from mating for different time periods in days. Same age virgin male and female cigarette beetles were paired to mate soon after emergence (0 d old), or delayed from mating for 1–14 d. In another experiment, we maintained the age of the male at 0 d old and varied the age of the female from 0– 14 d old and vice versa. Insects were observed daily for longevity and F1 progeny was recorded 7–10 weeks after mating pairs were put together. Progeny production generally decreased with age of adults at mating. The number of F1 progeny produced by same age adults varied from 10 per female to 59 per female. Similarly, the number of progeny decreased the longer one sex was delayed from mating. Findings from this study may provide information for the development of mating disruption techniques that can delay mating and may be effective in keeping populations of L. serricorne below levels that would warrant a control action.</p> Rizana Mahroof Barbara Amoah Alison Gerken Jim Campbell ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 117 122 10.5073/jka.2018.463.029 Larvae of <i>Trogoderma</i> respond behaviorally to whole body extracts https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10635 <p>Behavioral responses to semiochemicals by <em>Trogoderma</em> (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) stored product pests were assayed in a small arena. Hexane extracts were obtained from Khapra beetle, <em>Trogoderma granarium</em>, warehouse beetle, <em>Trogoderma</em> variable, and the larger cabinet beetle <em>Trogoderma</em> inclusum that were killed by being frozen for 48 hours at -20° C. These extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and it was confirmed that they contain several cuticular hydrocarbons, fatty acids and sterols. Two choice experiments were performed inside Petri dish arenas, with filter paper fully covering the bottom surfaces. Two smaller 3cm filter papers were placed on opposite ends within each arena. Each of the smaller papers were folded three times in parallel to present a corrugated surface that the insects could move underneath if they chose. In each case, one paper had a 100µl aliquot of one of the extracts, and the other 100µl of hexane as a control. 10 late instar larvae of the same species as the treatment extract were placed in the arena and allowed to acclimate overnight in a dark room. For all three species, it was found that larvae were more likely to be found on the side of the Petri dish with the hexane control rather than the conspecific larval extract. They were also more likely to be on or near the smaller corrugated filter paper treated with the control as opposed to the filter paper treated with the larval extract. Thus repellency of the conspecific extract was demonstrated at that particular dose. Further assays using different doses of the raw extracts and their individual chemical components are planned. The use of these semiochemicals in novel management strategies will be considered.</p> Michael J. Domingue Scott W. Myers Thomas W. Phillips ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 463 123 125 10.5073/jka.2018.463.030 <i>Necrobia rufipes</i> (De Geer): an emerging pest associated with pet store chain in Europe https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10636 <p><em>Necrobia rufipes</em> is a cosmopolitan pest, causing considerable damage to stored commodities such as copra (dried coconut), cheese, dried fish, ham. The present study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of these insects on pet store chain in Europe. In the last year <em>N. rufipes</em> was found associated with pet food, especially in Mediterranean countries, causing considerable economic damage and loss of product. The causes of such sudden diffusion are not known but some considerations are reported. Future studies will be needed to collect data on development on pet food and on the possibility to monitor <em>N. rufipes</em> in wharehouses and pet stores.?</p> Sara Savoldelli Mirko Frigani Luciano Süss ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 126 127 10.5073/jka.2018.463.031 The orientation of <i>Tribolium castaneum</i> adults in the presence of aggregation pheromone 4,8-Dimethyldecanal and food oils https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10637 <p>Monitoring of <em>Tribolium castaneum</em>, the red flour beetle, involves the use of aggregation pheromone 4,8- dimethyldecanal (4,8 DMD) and kairomones such as cereal oils. Despite their present use, certain information which maximizes the efficacy of these compounds is still lacking. These experiments tested the effects of distance from the pheromone and edible oils on the orientation of<em> T. castaneum</em> adults. The movement of adults toward the aggregation pheromone was determined by changing the distance from the pheromone or the air flow. The adults released inside a glass apparatus tested their orientation either toward the food oils or the empty vial. The maximum trap catch was recorded at distances up to 60 cm from the pheromone and with the presence of air flow. The oils having botanical origin successfully attracted adults than those of animal origin. It is concluded that the orientation of T. castaneum adults varies with the distance from pheromone, air flow and the nature of food oil.</p> Dissanayaka Mudiyanselage Saman Kumara Dissanayaka Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage Prabodha Sammani Leanage Kanaka Wolly Wijayaratne ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 127 129 10.5073/jka.2018.463.032 The responses of <i>Tribolium castaneum</i> to wheat germ oil and fungal produced volatiles https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10638 <p>The red flour beetle <em>Tribolium castaneum</em> Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is a significant pest affecting a wide variety of different stored products around the Globe. Despite its economic impact, there is evidence that the lures currently used in traps to monitor for this species are largely ineffective. Based on the evolutionary history of <em>T. castaneum</em>, and the ecological niche it occupies, the volatiles of wheat germ oil and volatiles produced by grain-associated fungi have the potential to act as attractants for this species. We used electroantennography (EAG) to measure the electrophysiological response elicited by sixty-eight volatile compounds found in wheat germ oil and/or grain-associated fungi in two <em>T. castaneum</em> strains; an established lab population (CTC12 strain) and a recently caught wild population. Many volatile compounds from both sources elicited strong antennal depolarisations, and the responses of both strains were highly correlated. We then tested whether the compounds that triggered the strongest antennal depolarisations also elicited behavioural responses by using Y-tube olfactometer bioassays and identified several compounds attractive to both strains. The discovery of novel compounds that elicit strong EAG signals and behavioural responses could prove useful in the design of improved lures for <em>T. castaneum</em> and other stored product pests. Our future research will identify how effective these attractive volatiles might be when used in combination, and when used under conditions that more closely replicate a stored product environment.</p> Matthew Dooley Andrew D. Peel Maureen Wakefield ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 129 138 10.5073/jka.2018.463.033 The potential of host-specific volatiles from <i>Tribolium confusum</i> larval faeces for luring the ectoparasitoid <i>Holepyris sylvanidis</i> https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10639 <p>The ectoparasitoid <em>Holepyris sylvanidis</em> (Bethylidae) attacks larvae of different stored product pest beetles. Previous studies on the olfactory host search of <em>H. sylvanidis</em> revealed that female parasitoids are strongly attracted to volatiles released from <em>Tribolium confusum</em> larval faeces, in particular to (E)-2-nonenal and 1-pentadecene. We suggested that these host-specific key compounds may serve the parasitoid as long-range attractants for host location. In this context, we propose that the attractive volatile blend could be used to establish a new approach within the biological control of stored product pests by guiding the parasitoid to its host and thus, increasing the host finding success. We investigated the potential of the identified host-indicating volatile cues to attract <em>H. sylvanidis</em> from a distance by offering the two key compounds to female parasitoids. Their walking behaviour and the covered distance were analysed on a Kramer sphere. Moreover, in semi-field trials both attractive volatiles were loaded onto rubber septa which were placed next to 4th instars of <em>T. confusum</em> at 1.5 m distance from the parasitoids. We studied the host finding success of <em>H. sylvanidis</em> by (i) measuring the mean time to locate and parasitise <em>T. confusum</em> larvae and (ii) counting the number of parasitised and unparasitised host larvae as well as the number of newly hatched parasitoids compared to the control without additional olfactory cues. First results showed that <em>H. sylvanidis</em> females can locate the provided host larvae from a distance. Parasitistion of host larvae started four days after the release of parasitoids. No effect of the additionally offered hostspecific key volatiles ((E)-2-nonenal and 1-pentadecene) on the parasitoid´s host finding success was observed at the given conditions and used amounts of compounds. Further studies are required to determine the right odour blend and concentrations for attraction of parasitoids over a distance and finally to show that the addition of host-derived kairomones may support the host finding success of <em>H. sylvanidis</em>.</p> Sarah Awater Benjamin Fürstenau ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 139 143 10.5073/jka.2018.463.034 (Z, E)-9, 12-Tetradecadienyl Acetate (ZETA) disrupts mating of <i>Ephestia cautella</i> https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10640 <p>The tropical warehouse moth <em>Ephestia cautella</em> is a major pest of stored products in Sri Lanka, and difficult to control using currently-available insecticides. The sex pheromone (Z, E)-9, 12- tetradecadienyl acetate (ZETA) emitted by the females attracts males of this species. Hence it can potentially be used in the management programs but the limited information on pheromone concentration and air movement impede the potential use of this pheromone in pest management programs. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of ZETA concentration and air movement on the mating disruption of <em>E. cautella</em>. The male and female moths of <em>E. cautella</em> were introduced into a cubicle in which ZETA was placed at different concentrations. Later, the female moths were dissected to determine the presence/absence of spermatophore. All the pheromone concentrations tested recorded lower mating percentages than the hexane control. Mating disruption varied with the pheromone concentration and the availability of air flow. This study reveals that ZETA can be used to disrupt mating in <em>E. cautella</em>.</p> Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage Prabodha Sammani Dissanayaka Mudiyanselage Saman Kumara Dissanayaka Leanage Kanaka Wolly Wijayaratne Chaminda Egodawatta Prasanna Herathge Pradeep Prasanna ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 144 145 10.5073/jka.2018.463.035 Suitability of Poaceae seeds for <i>Plodia interpunctella</i> development https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10641 <p>One of the most important pests of stored grains is <em>Plodia interpunctella</em> (Hübner), whose larvae feed primarily on germinal part of the kernels, causing a reduction of seed germination and seed viability. This is detrimental for seeds of high category. However, seeds of different species within the same taxonomic family have different morphology (thickness of seed-coat, presence or absence of palea, palea loose or firmly attached to the seed etc.), which affects the susceptibility of seeds to <em>P. interpunctella</em> attack. The hypothesis was that seed hardness and the absence of palea could also significantly influence the life history of this pest. We assessed the suitability of different seeds from family Poacae (maize, wheat, barley, oats, ray, forage sorghum (variety), forage sorghum (hybrid), Sudan grass and millet) for <em>P. interpunctella</em> development and seeds susceptibility to pest attack (expressed in Susceptibility index –SI). The following parameters were monitored: larval mortality, adult emergence, mean developmental duration (from egg to adult) and female fecundity. Observations were carried out weekly, for 49 days. Data were statistically analyzed using Duncan’s multiple range Test. The highest larval mortality, the lowest number of emerged moths and the lowest fecundity were recorded on millet, Sudan grass and forage sorghum (variety and hybrid). However, the shortest larval development (27.8 days) and the highest fecundity (109.5-115.6 eggs) were on standard laboratory diet, maize and wheat. Morphometric measures of moths indicate that on unsuitable mediums like millet, Sudan grass, and different sorghum varieties the body lengths were statistically significantly shorter (0.5-0.6 cm) compared to other treatments (0.8-0.9 cm). According to the SI, the most susceptible were maize, wheat, barley, oats and ray, while moderately resistant were Sudan grass and millet. Testing kernel hardness and continuous improving of kernel resistance to storage insect pests could provide lower losses in stored grain quality and quantity.</p> Sonja Gvozdenac Branko Milošević Anja Dolapčev Jelena Ovuka Mladen Tatić Snežana Tanasković Filip Vukajlović ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 145 151 10.5073/jka.2018.463.036 Population growth and development of <i>Liposcelis obscurus</i> Broadhead (Psocodea: Liposcelididae) at constant temperatures and relative humidities https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10642 <p>The effects of nine temperatures (22.5, 25, 27.5, 30, 32.5, 35, 37.5, 40, and 42.5°C) and four RHs (43, 55, 63, and 75%) on the population growth and development of the parthenogenetic <em>Liposcelis obscurus</em> Broadhead (Psocodea: Liposcelididae) were investigated in laboratory studies. Results showed that L. obscurus did not survive at 43% RH at all temperatures tested. At 55% RH, <em>L. obscurus</em> survived at 22.5, 25, and 27.5°C; none survived at 42.5°C and =63% RH. <em>Liposcelis obscurus</em> survived and the population increased 56–fold from an initial population of five adult females at 42.5°C and =75% RH. Population growth was highest at 40°C and 75% RH, where population increase was 215-fold.<em> Liposcelis obscurus</em> has three-to-five nymphal instars, and the percentages of third, fourth, and fifth instars were 52, 41, and 7%, respectively. Temperature-dependent developmental equations were developed for <em>L. obscurus</em> eggs, individual nymphal, combined nymphal, and combined immature stages. <em>Liposcelis obscurus</em> populations grew much faster at 30–42.5oC and 75% RH. These data provide a better understanding of <em>L. obscurus</em> population dynamics, and can be used to develop effective management strategies for this psocid.</p> George Opit Abena Ocran Kandara Shakya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 151 159 10.5073/jka.2018.463.037 Circadian rhythm of <i>Liposcelis entomophila</i> and <i>Liposcelis paeta</i> in paddy warehouse https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10643 <p>Booklice is a small but serious stored grain pest, and understanding the circadian rhythm of booklice help to control. In this study, circadian activity of booklice were monitored with sticky traps in the grain bulk surfaces of two warehouses stored paddy rice in two different provinces in China. The results showed that the species of booklice were different and were <em>Liposcelis entomophila</em>, and <em>Liposcelisp paeta</em> for Nanning’s and Zhanjiang’s warehouses respectively. In term of <em>L.entomophila</em>, its activity intensity gradually decreased from 0 am to 12 pm and reached the lowest level of daily activity at 12pm. After this, there was a steady and straight upward trend, and the peak of its activity intensity is reached at 8 pm. Its circadian activity trend can be represented as: y = - 0.971x3 + 21.88x2 - 139.5x + 353.4(x: time; y: quantity of booklice). Over the same period, the activity intensity of <em>L.paeta</em> varied greatly. It gradually increased, reached a peak at 8 am, dropped dramatically at 12 pm and then climbed the second peak at 6 pm.</p> Zhenjun Zhang Yanyu li Zhongming Wang Yang Cao Yanmei Qi Derong Pan Rui He ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 159 162 10.5073/jka.2018.463.038 Development of a suitable rearing media for <i>Tribolium castaneum</i> https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10644 <p><em>Tribolium castaneum</em> is a serious pest of cereal flour and flour-based products, and thus a test insect in storedproduct research. The composition of the rearing medium affects the progeny production, their performance and handling efficacy. The objective of this research was to develop a suitable rearing media for <em>T. castaneum</em>. The research tested wheat flour, crushed broiler feed, crushed dog feed and corn flour alone and in different combinations. Twenty adults of T. castaneum were introduced to each medium separately, and removed after 2 weeks. The progeny adults emerged in each rearing medium was determined. The progeny produced differed with the food medium. In general, the rearing media having a combination of ingredients produced more progeny than a particular component alone. Different ratios of these food ingredients need to be tested to further increase the progeny production in <em>T. castaneum</em> and to determine the efficacy of these media on the progeny production in other species.</p> Karyawasam Bovithanthri Thanushi Thamodhi Wijerathne Edirimunhie Vishwa Udani Perera Karunarathne Dissanayaka Mudiyanselage Saman Kumara Dissanayaka Leanage Kanaka Wolly Wijayaratne ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 162 165 10.5073/jka.2018.463.039 <i>Sitotroga cerealella</i> (Olivier) resilience to extreme temperature and desiccation may explain its increasing pest status in changing climates https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10645 <p>The mechanisms underlying <em>Sitotroga cerealella</em> survival under variable and increasing mean thermal and desiccation environments typical under global change is currently unknown. To understand how <em>S. cerealella</em> survives extreme abiotic stressors typical of stored-grain environments, we measured <em>S. cerealella</em> tolerance temperature and desiccation. The results showed that to survive desiccating grain storage environments, <em>S. cerealella</em> relied more on high body water content (BWC) (70.2 ± 3.72%) compared to lipid reserves (9.8± 0.81%). In desiccating environment, <em>S. cerealella</em> showed a reduced water loss rate (0.056mg/h) (equivalent of 1.81% of body water/hour) which would require 19.31 h to reduce the insect body water to its critical minimum (35.23% body water content at death), which is 50.20% of normal initial body water. Similarly <em>S. cerealella</em> exhibited high basal heat tolerance with critical thermal maximum of 46.09 ± 1.042°C and a heat knockdown time of 7.97 ± 1.64 minutes. Basal cold tolerance was relatively compromised (critical thermal minima of 4.52 ± 1.06°C and chill coma recovery time of 5.80 ±1.17 minutes), following 1h at 0°C. We found no significant correlation (P &gt; 0.001) between BWC and the measured thermal tolerance traits. Low water loss rates reported here may be an evolutionary resistance mechanism for desiccation tolerance. Observed abiotic stress tolerance may explain the ubiquitous distribution of <em>S. cerealella</em> in Africa which is likely to enhance its survival and increase its pest status under global change.</p> Honest Machekano Brighton M. Mvumi Casper Nyamukondiwa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 10.5073/jka.2018.463.040 Suitability of hemp seed for reproduction of stored-product insects https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10646 Kim Stadnyk Noel D. G. White Fuji Jian Paul G. Fields ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 172 172 10.5073/jka.2018.463.041 The use of long-lasting insecticide netting to prevent dispersal of stored product insects https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10647 <p>The lesser grain borer, <em>Rhyzopertha dominica</em>, and red flour beetle, <em>Tribolium castaneum</em>, are two notorious primary and secondary pests of stored products. Extensive research has been done to prevent the establishment and subsequent infestation of the insects in stored product facilities. Long-lasting insecticide netting (LLIN) on mosquitoes has proved effective in controlling the spread of malaria, but little research has been conducted on the LLIN’s behavioral effects of stored product insects. In this study, a movement and dispersal assay were performed. In the movement assay, the video-tracking software, Ethovision, recorded the movement of <em>R. dominica</em> and<em> T. castaneum</em> after 1-10 min exposures to LLIN or control netting and a waiting period of 1 min, 24 hr, 72 hr, or 7 days after netting exposure. In the dispersal assay, <em>R. dominica</em> and <em>T. castaneum</em> were observed after 5 minutes of exposure to LLIN or control netting to measure the insects’ ability to reach new food patches at three different distances. The results from the movement assay showed a significant reduction in horizontal movement and significant increase in angular velocity for beetles exposed to LLINs, indicating that movements were more erratic and less directed. The dispersal assay revealed that exposure to LLIN had a significant effect on the dispersal ability of both <em>R. dominica</em> and <em>T. castaneum</em> with averages of 0-3 from a group of 20 beetles reaching the new food patch. These results indicate that LLINs can be an effective tool for the prevention of stored product insect establishment and colonization.</p> William R. Morrison III Rachel V. Wilkins ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 172 176 10.5073/jka.2018.463.042 Evaluation of the attractiveness of an organic litter compared to breeding substrate https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10648 <p>In a pet shop warehouse, stored food pest insects can develop in various preserved animal feeds (dog’s pasta, puffed rice, kibble). However, there is another commodity that is rarely considered, such as the organic litter which is composed of bran, flours and other residues of the screening of corn that may result attractive to the same pest insects. The purpose of this laboratory test was to evaluate the attractiveness of organic litters on <em>Plodia interpunctella, Tribolium confusum, Oryzaephilus surinamensi</em>s in comparison with breeding substrate. The results confirmed that the test insects were attracted by the breeding substrate rather than by the organic litter.</p> Francesca Lampugnani Guglielmo Cassani Dario Zanoni ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 177 180 10.5073/jka.2018.463.043 Evaluation of the difference in the development of stored insect pests on organic litter https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10649 <p>On July 2017 in a warehouse of pet food shop in Italy an infestation of <em>Oryzaephilus surinamensis</em> was found on a pallet of organic litter, near an infested pallet of dog’s pasta. In order to investigate the origin of the infestation, and to support the risk assessment by the pest control operator, one test was conducted at Agroblu Laboratory of Applied Entomology (LEAA) to observe the feasibility of development of <em>O. surinamensis, Plodia interpunctella</em> and <em>Tribolium confusum</em>, in a substrate of 2,5 g of organic litter and to compare it to a balanced diet substrate. The results showed that only <em>T. confusum</em> was able to develop with no statistical difference both on the breeding diet and the organic litter.</p> Francesca Lampugnani Guglielmo Cassani Dario Zanoni ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 180 183 10.5073/jka.2018.463.044 Unusual cases of product contamination by 'wandering' larvae of the Indian meal moth, <i>Plodia interpunctella</i> (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10650 <p>Upon hatching, the larvae of the Indian meal moth (IMM), <em>Plodia interpunctella</em>, disperse vigorously. Within a few hours, they establish themselves on the crevices of food or enter packaged product through small openings and cracks. When on food the larvae intensively feed in or near a tunnel-like case made of frass and silk they web together. The number of larval instars varies from five to seven, depending on temperature, humidity and available food quality. Most mature larvae leave the food medium and search for a suitable place to spin a cocoon in which they pupate or hibernating (diapause). At the end of larval development, the larvae usually chews a hole in a packaging foil, and leave the medium to pupate outside in corners and cracks and also behind items on walls. Fully grown larvae of the IMM may travel a considerable distance before pupating in a location that is frequently away from the larval food source. It will be proven and illustrated that during this time larvae the IMM may penetrate the packaging material of some household items that were not their food source. Unusual cases of product contamination by 'wandering' larvae will be described. Client claims are thus frequent as only a few larvae in a package with their webbing and frass are very repulsive to homeowners. Impact of product contamination by 'wandering' larvae of the IMM to the firm marketing the products will be discussed.</p> Stanislaw Ignatowicz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 183 189 10.5073/jka.2018.463.252 Susceptibility of dried berries to infestation by <i>Plodia interpunctella</i> (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in correlation with total sugar content https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10651 <p>By assessing the degree of resistance of stored products to infestation by insect pests and correlating it with physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of products, we could gain a real insight in these pests feeding preferences, and consequently in their biology and ecology. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of resistance of five dried berry species (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, black chokeberry and cranberry) to infestation caused by the major pest of dried berries, <em>Plodia interpunctella</em>. Susceptibility was rated based on the Index of susceptibility (IS) for insect development and the Susceptibility rating. Dried cranberries were absolutely resistant to infestation by <em>P. interpunctella</em> (IS = 0) - no larvae reached the adult stage. Four other dried berry species were also resistant (IS ranged 2.01 – 2.44). In other words, dried cranberries are very unsuitable food for <em>P. interpunctella</em>, while other four tested species were slightly more suitable. The content of total sugars in dried berries varied from 24.2% (black chokeberry) to 72.8% (strawberry), but important correlation between IS and total sugar content was not found. By analysing feeding preferences of <em>P. interpunctella</em>, we can undertake different pest-management strategies for protection of stored dried fruits.</p> Filip Vukajlović Dragana Predojević Snežana Tanasković Kristina Miljković Sonja Gvozdenac Vesna Perišić Snežana Pešić ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 189 193 10.5073/jka.2018.463.045 Behaviour of the Angoumois grain moth (<i>Sitotroga cerealella</i> Oliv.) in different grain substrates and assessment of losses https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10653 <p>The Angoumois grain moth, <em>Sitotroga cerealella</em>, is a primary stored grain pest, which development occurs within a single grain. The respond of the pest to various offered grain substrates was studied in no choice laboratory experiment (temperature 27±1ºC; relative humidity 60-80%), by rearing moth populations on entire grains (corn, wheat, barley, sorghum, millet, tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass) and mechanically damaged grains (corn in fractions with/without embryo, polished rice). The pest behaviour was determined by observation of the entrance and exit hole position on different grains. The food consumption was estimated after adult emergence, by measuring of mass losses of infested grains. Mass losses were correlated with quantitative and qualitative grain parameters. The development was successfully accomplished in all grain substrates, except in Kentucky bluegrass. Strategies of larval penetration and exit hole position depended on morphological properties of grains. As a rule, the development of an individual was completed in a single grain, but in polished rice the transfer from one to another grain was observed. The highest loss of infested grain was recorded in corn grains (55.48 mg), the lowest in tall fescue grains (2.40 mg). Positive correlations were detected between the mass losses and protein, lipid and sugar content, negative in relation to cellulose and ash content.</p> Ćupina Aleksandra Ignjatović Petar Kljajić Goran Andrić Marijana Pražić Golić Mihaela Kavran Dušan Petrić ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 193 203 10.5073/jka.2018.463.046 Progeny production by <i>Stegobium paniceum</i> in different spices https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10654 <p>Spices have long been an important component in the preparation of food, and some have medicinal properties as well. <em>Stegobium paniceum</em>, the drugstore beetle, has been detected in spices but no detailed information is available on its infestation in certain locally-available spices. Objective of this study was to find out the degree of infestation by <em>S. paniceum</em> in ten different spices. Twenty adults of <em>S. paniceum</em> were introduced into a vial containing a particular spice, maintained for two weeks and shifted out. These were maintained under ambient environmental conditions and the progeny adults emerged in each medium was counted at two week intervals for three months. The progeny produced varied with the food medium; the highest progeny was recorded in coriander whereas the lowest progeny was recorded in cinnamon, clove, dill seeds, cardamom, chilli, pepper corn and turmeric powder. This study reveals that <em>S. paniceum</em> infests a wide array of spices at different levels. This information is important for taking necessary steps to protect the spices from the infestation of <em>S. paniceum</em>.</p> Panamulla Arachchige Hasitha Sajeewani Dissanayaka Mudiyanselage Saman Kumara Dissanayaka Leanage Kanaka Wolly Wijayaratne ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 203 205 10.5073/jka.2018.463.047 The developmental parameters of the minute brown scavenger beetle <i>Dienerella argus</i> (Coleoptera: Latridiidae) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10655 <p>Adults and larvae <em>of Dienerella argus</em> (Reitter) (Coleoptera: Latridiidae) feed on fungi and are frequently found in indoor, moldy areas. The basic biology of this species, other than its feeding habits, has not been determined. In this study, the developmental parameters of the beetle were investigated using dried hyphae and conidia from three fungi that are common in living areas. The developmental periods of the beetle on <em>Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium citrinum,</em> and<em> P. decumbens</em> were examined at 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 °C / 70–75 % RH under dark conditions. The low developmental threshold temperatures and thermal constants calculated from egg to adult emergence were 10.5 °C and 526 DD (degree day), 9.0 °C and 500 DD, and 10.9 °C and 370 DD on <em>C. cladosporioides, P. citrinum,</em> and <em>P. decumbens,</em> respectively. These developmental parameters indicate that these beetles can breed year-round in indoor areas that are in air-conditioned facilities.</p> Toshihiro Imai ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 205 208 10.5073/jka.2018.463.048 Comparison of mandible morphology of two stored product bostrichid beetles, <i>Rhyzopertha dominica</i> and <i>Prostephanus truncatus</i> https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10656 <p>Insect mandibles are most frequently encountered fragments in processed foods. Thanks to their sclerotised and darkly pigmented nature, they usually remain intact in foods and are relatively easily detectable. Moreover, because of their complexity and variety of shapes, stored product beetle mandibles may be useful in species determination. The present work deals with a comparative morphology of two stored product bostrichid beetles, <em>Rhyzopertha dominica</em> and <em>Prostephanus truncatus</em>. The mandibles were studied using by light and scanning electron microscopy and their morphological details, overall appearance and size are provided.</p> Tomas Vendl Radek Aulicky Vaclav Stejskal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 208 211 10.5073/jka.2018.463.049 Behavioural responses of <i>Callosobruchus maculatus</i> to volatiles organic compounds found in the headspace of dried green pea seeds https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10657 Agnes Ndomo epse. Moualeu Christian Ulrichs Cornel Adler ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 211 211 10.5073/jka.2018.463.050 Investigation on the species and distribution of stored grain insects in northwest China https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10658 <p>To understand the diversity of stored grain insects in northwest China, we have fulfilled insect collection in 56 grain storage enterprises, 60 grain, oil and feed processing plants and 65 farmers situated in 26 cities of five provinces (Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang) in northwest China from 2016 to 2017. After systematical identification, totally 83 species of stored grain insects have been found in this investigation, belonging to five orders, namely Class Insecta Order Zygentoma, Order Coleoptera, Order Lepidoptera and Order Hymenoptera, as well as Class Arachnida Order Chelonethida, in which Order Coleoptera owns 74 species in 22 families, Order Lepidoptera owns six species in four families, Order Zygentoma and Order Hymenoptera own one species in one family respectively, and Class Arachnida Order Chelonethida has one species in one family. After the statistics of four insect investigations in northwest China during 1955-2017, this paper has analyzed the results of four insect investigations and the representative stored grain insects in northwest China.</p> Dandan Li Zhenya Mu Daolin Guo Xiaoping Yan Qing Zhou ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 463 211 216 10.5073/jka.2018.463.251 Stored product insects at a rice mill: Temporal and spatial patterns and implications for pest management https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10660 <p>Monitoring is fundamental to integrated pest management programs since it provides feedback on effectiveness of prevention programs and helps with targeting interventions as needed and evaluating their effectiveness. Rice mills are spatially complex facilities that have a combination of rough rice storage bins, buildings where rice is milled and processed, and warehouses and bulk storage bins where finished product is held before shipment. Each of these structures can have its own suite of insect species, different levels of risk, as well as different suites of management tools available. At a large rice mill in Brazil, stored product insect activity was monitored using food bait traps placed around rough rice receiving areas and storage bins; inside building containing white rice mill, rice flour mill, and packaging; and inside building for processing parboiled rice. The facility was monitored from 2010 to 2018 with 100 traps. Major pest species recovered at the facility included <em>Sitophilus oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais, Rhyzopertha dominica, Tribolium castaneum, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Ahasverus advena, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Typhaea stercorea, Anthicus floralis,</em> and Nitidulidae species. Temporal and spatial patterns in abundance were evaluated for each of the major species and for major functional groups (primary feeders, secondary feeders, and fungal feeders). Monitoring data generated was used to guide pest management programs and also provided the information needed to develop management thresholds.</p> Sonia Lazzari Flavio Lazzari Fernanda Lazzari Frank H. Arthur James F. Campbell ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 217 221 10.5073/jka.2018.463.051 From stored-product psocids to the other pests: the developments, problems and prospects on research and application of molecular identification https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10661 <p>Psocids, beetles, moths and mites are regarded as the common kinds of stored-product pests in the world. The rapid and correct identification of stored-product pests is significant for quarantine, monitoring and control purposes. Molecular methods and techniques have been studied and applied for stored-product pest identification. Based on collection and analysis of literature in the last decade, this paper reviews the developments, questions and prospects for molecular identification of stored-product pests. As a representative model, the molecular methods and techniques for species identification of stored-product psocid pests were developed and applied systematically based on international collaboration involving China, Czech Republic, the United States and other countries. More than 10 studies on stored-product psocids related to RFLP, DNA barcoding, PCR, real-time PCR and gene chip have been published during this decade. Subsequently, DNA barcoding, PCR and real-time PCR techniques for the identification of common species of <em>Tribolium</em> and Cryptolestes pests of stored products have been reported by the same international team. Recently, a web system called Grain Pests DNA Barcode Identification System (GPDBIS) has been established in China using SOL SERVER and C#. Like a marathon that requires persistence, we should do our best to continue to promote research and application of molecular identification of stored-product pests with more international collaboration.</p> Zhihong Li Vaclav Stejskal George Opit Yang Cao James E. Throne ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 221 224 10.5073/jka.2018.463.052 Enhancing surveillance for exotic stored pests in the Australian grains industry using a partnership approach with industry and government. https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10662 <p>Verifying freedom from exotic pests such as Khapra beetle (<em>Trogoderma granarium</em>) &amp; Karnal Bunt (Tilletia indica) is critical to supporting &amp; maintaining access for Australian grain producers to international markets. Despite Australia’s geographical isolation &amp; strong quarantine systems, increasing levels of travel &amp; trade continues to place pressure on our biosecurity systems, emphasising the need for improving our regional efforts in prevention, preparedness &amp; surveillance to mitigate risks. The Australian Grains Farm Biosecurity Program (GFBP) is a national initiative to assist in the development &amp; implementation of improved biosecurity practice, playing a vital role in the education of exotic pests &amp; the role of surveillance by industry. The GFBP has undertaken a targeted surveillance program for stored product pests, with Khapra beetle as the main focus. A range of sites based on potential risk groups &amp; pathways (e.g. farming enterprises, seed distributors &amp; agricultural stores) were targeted, with different approaches used across the three grain growing regions of Australia depending on State activities &amp; pre-existing collaborators. All regions used a combination of pheromone traps &amp; other sampling methods appropriate for host materials &amp; environment. The surveillance is aimed at strengthening evidence of absence, building industry knowledge &amp; participation in grain storage surveillance &amp; promoting improved management practices around storage. These regionally specific engagement methods &amp; surveillance efforts are discussed. Australia remains free of Khapra beetle.</p> Judy Bellati Rachel Taylor-Hukins Kym McIntyre ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 224 228 10.5073/jka.2018.463.053 Testing wheat for internal infesting insects with an electrically conductive roller mill https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10663 <p>Although grain is always inspected for adult insects and insect damaged kernels upon shipping and receiving, immature insects living inside the kernels of grain cannot be readily detected. A laboratory roller mill was modified to measure and analyze the electrical conductance of wheat as it was crushed. The electrical conductance of normal wheat kernels is low and fairly constant. In contrast, the electrical conductance of infested wheat kernels produces a sudden change in the electrical signal. The peak height of the electrical spike depends on the size of the larvae and the resulting contact of the crushed larvae between the rolls. This instrument was designed to test wheat with moisture content of 13.5% or less. The laboratory mill can test a kilogram of wheat in less than 2 min. Hard red winter and soft red winter wheat samples were used in experiments. Known numbers of infested kernels were added to the wheat samples. The infested kernels contained larvae of rice weevils and lesser grain borers sorted into large, medium, and small size groups. The instrument detected ~8 of 10 infested kernels per 100 g of wheat with large-larvae (fourth instar or pupae). It detected ~7 of 10 infested kernels with medium-larvae (second or third instar) and ~5 of 10 infested kernels infested with the small-larvae (first or second instar). Under reasonable grain moisture and careful sample handling, there were no non-infested kernels classified as insect infested. The mill can lead to rapid and automated detection of infested wheat.</p> Daniel Brabec James F. Campbell ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 228 233 10.5073/jka.2018.463.054 Survey of <i>Trogoderma</i> species (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) associated with international trade of dried distiller’s grains and solubles in the USA https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10664 <p>Dried distiller’s grains and solubles, DDGS, is a valuable commodity with substantial international trade. Vietnam discovered an infestation of <em>Trogoderma inclusum</em>, an actionable quarantine pest, in DDGS from the USA in 2012. All subsequent shipments to Vietnam were required to be fumigated. A shipment to Vietnam from the USA 2015 was then discovered with <em>T. variabile</em>. We surveyed the presence and activity of <em>T. inclusum</em> and<em> T. variabile</em> at locations in the USA that provide DDGSs for shipment to Vietnam. Seven facilities in four states that either produced DDGSs or that facilitated bulk shipments were studied. Pheromone traps were deployed at each location and monitored for several weeks. <em>T. variaible</em> was trapped at all seven sites while <em>T. inclusum</em> was trapped at just five of these. <em>T. variabile</em> were captured in nearly every trapping period and at higher numbers than <em>T. inclusum</em> at five locations, while two locations captured more <em>T. inclusum</em> than <em>T. variabile</em>. Spatial variation seemed to occur within each site, but there was no common pattern among facilities. Substantial numbers of beetles were caught in the outdoor sticky flight traps for most locations, except for relatively low flight trap numbers at locations 1, 4 and 6. The results show that <em>T. variabile</em> and <em>T. inclusum</em> are commonly associated with DDGSs produced in the USA, that these beetles could infest product being shipped overseas, and provide information that can be used to develop risk assessment and pest management programs for the future.</p> Thomas W. Phillips Luke Pfannenstiel David Hagstrum ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 233 238 10.5073/jka.2018.463.055 Insect pest monitoring in museums - old and new strategies https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10665 Pascal Querner ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 239 239 10.5073/jka.2018.463.056 Remote monitoring of stored grain insect pests https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10666 <p>A number of remote sensing methods were developed and tested in commercial grain warehouses; probe pitfall traps attached to vacuum lines, surface pit fall traps equipped with video cameras and white boards on grain surface monitored with video cameras. These methods were compared with detecting insects using grain samples. Warehouse trials by trapped methods were carried out in bins with 8520 t of wheat from 23 May until 8 August 2016.Grain temperatures were from 22.7 to 31.6?. Psocids,<em>Liposcelis bostrychophila</em> Badonnel,were detected by grain samples, but there were higher number of pscoids trapped with the probe pitfall traps and pitfall traps than found in grain samples. <em>Plodia interpunctella</em> (Hübener), <em>Sitophlius zeamais</em> Motchulsky and <em>Cryptolestes ferrugineus</em> (Stephens) were detected by probe pitfall trap, but not in the grain samples. <em>S. zeamais</em> was detected by the pit fall traps. Using the remote controlled video camera in the warehouse head space, we were able to distinguish and count <em>S. zeamais, C. ferrugineus</em> and psocids on white boards. The video from pitfall traps can be sent to mobile phones. With all these methods, data can be collected remotely, and could be analyzed by imagine analysis allowing for rapid real time monitoring of insect pests.</p> Dianxuan Wang Chunqi Bai Hui Li Yujie Lu Xu Guo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 239 245 10.5073/jka.2018.463.057 Can the DI-SPME gas chromatography mass spectrometer be a tool for identification of stored grain insects - fatty acids and sterols profiling https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10667 Xin Du Yujie Lu Giles Hardy Robert N. Emery Wenjuan Zhang Yonglin Ren ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 245 246 10.5073/jka.2018.463.058 Webbing clothes moth, Tineola bisselliella (Hummel) sex pheromone transfer from monitoring lures to textiles https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10668 <p>The use of synthesized sex pheromone lures for the purpose of monitoring populations of webbing clothes moth, <em>Tineola bisselliella</em> (Hummel) in museum storage environments is typical in many museums. Questions about whether the pheromone incorporated in the dispensing lures could possibly transfer over to textiles that are in close proximity to the lures have been posed by museum conservators. Although some textiles may be naturally attractive to clothes moths, the concerns are that the textiles themselves may become even more attractive to insects due to exposure to the pheromone and that this could ultimately cause further damage to the collections. The focus of this study was to determine the degree to which textiles that have been exposed to pheromone lures absorb the pheromone and become attractive themselves. Based on the results of this study, the textiles observed here have little to no additional attraction to insect pests after focused exposure to synthetic pheromone lures over a two-week period.</p> Patrick Kelley Laura Mina James Feston David Mueller Alain Van Ryckeghem ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 246 251 10.5073/jka.2018.463.059 Khapra beetle diagnostics https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10669 <p>The khapra beetle, <em>Trogoderma granarium</em> Everts, is a serious pest of grains and stored dry food stuffs and is the subject of strict quarantine measures in many countries including Australia. Morphologically the khapra beetle can only be reliably identified by dissection by a limited number of skilled taxonomists. Suspect specimens found in grain products are usually the larvae or larval skins which are difficult to diagnose morphologically. Adult specimens are usually scarce and damaged. Due to their similarity, warehouse beetle (<em>Trogoderma variabile</em>) and other native Trogoderma spp. could be mistakenly identified as <em>T. granarium</em> with market access implicatons or could mask an incursion. Molecular diagnostic protocols have been developed for khapra beetle, but remain largely untested against other species of <em>Trogoderma</em>, some also capable of being pests. Western Australia has a broad large, poorly studied native <em>Trogoderma</em> fauna, many of which are still undescribed; their estimated number is possibly over 100 species. Occasionally native Australian species can occur in stored commodities. Their identification and at least separation from the pestiferous exotic <em>Trogoderma</em> presents a serious problem. The work in this paper has been undertaken in an attempt to distinguish <em>T. granarium</em> from Australian native <em>Trogoderma</em> and related Dermestid species by both morphological and molecular methods. Dermestid specimens were sourced mainly from a targeted survey around grain silos throughout Australia, using two trap types, inside and outside facilities. Khapra beetle specimens were sourced from different geographical locations around the world.</p> Oonagh Byrne Sam Hair Nadine Guthrie Kira Farmer Andras Szito Robert N. Emery ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 252 260 10.5073/jka.2018.463.060 Assessing drivers of maize storage losses in south west Benin using a Fractional Response Model https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10670 <p>An assessment of drivers of maize storage losses was undertaken in south west Benin applying the Fractional Response Model on information collected from 400 smallholder maize farmers. Overall, respondents lose on average 10.3% of their harvest during the storage period. The average marginal effect obtained from the fractional response model of storage losses revealed that storage technologies, farmers’ post-harvest attitudes, insects damage, the weather conditions and infrastructures played a significant role in the level of storage losses surveyed farmers have experienced. Farmers using bags and plastic containers have respectively reduced their storage losses by 6.7 and 7.8% compared to farmers using cribs. Considering the use of storage protectant, the results indicated that using ash, neem leaves, pepper or lemon lead to an increase of 4.1% of losses relative to storing without any protectant. Drying after harvesting decreased by 1.9% the share of the quantity stored lost during storage. The percentage of maize lost increased by 5.1% for respondents who have reported insects as predators of their stored maize. Rain at harvest time increased the percentage of losses by 2.1%. A one-degree increase in temperature increased the percentage of maize loss by 4.4% and farmers who live at less than 26.5 km to the market have reduced by 0.17% of maize losses. Effective policies for a sustainable reduction of storage losses among maize farmers in the area should consider the need to discourage the use of cribs, ash, leaves, pepper and lemon as storage technologies. Farmers should avoid harvesting during times of rain, and should properly dry their produce after harvesting. Sustainable hermetic equipment should be promoted and farmers’ access to markets facilitated.</p> Sylvie A. Ogoudedji Irene S. Egyir Yaw Osel-Asare Al-Hassan Wayo Seini Albert Honlonlou ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 260 263 10.5073/jka.2018.463.061 Insects and fungi in stored maize in Angola https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10671 <p>In underdeveloped countries in Asia and Africa, non-effective post-harvest technologies and sometimes ideal environmental conditions for development of pests like insects, fungi, rodents and birds, can lead to damage of both raw or processed foods. Losses can achieve considerable proportions in dried vegetables used as food products, particularly in underdeveloped countries where food security problems are a daily basis routine. The major goal of the present study was the identification of insects and fungi associated with maize under local storage conditions in the Angola provinces of de Benguela, Bié, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza sul, Huambo, Huíla, Luanda, Malange and Namibe. A wide range of storage methods for cereals were sampled, from small containers of peasants and small farmers up to the large metal containers used by large agricultural companies and Estates. The achieved results will contribute for food security improvement in Angola and for the maintenance and preservation of good and healthy seeds at the traditional farmers’ community level. The insect pests registered from the studied samples were <em>Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Gnatocerus maxillosus, Liposcelis bostrychophila, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus zeamais, Sitotroga cerealella</em> and <em>Tribolium castaneum</em>. The species <em>Prostephanus truncatus</em> was not found in the studied samples. Fungi in the genus <em>Aspergillus, Fusarium</em> and <em>Penicillium</em> were presented at a high incidence in all samples studied, although the relative abundance of different fungi species varied with the sample location.</p> Laurinda Paim Graça Barros Ana Magro Elsa Borges da Silva António Mexia Arlindo Lima ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 264 268 10.5073/jka.2018.463.062 Automated detection and monitoring of grain beetles using a “smart” pitfall trap https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10672 <p>A smart, electronic, modified pitfall trap, for automatic detection of adult beetle pests inside the grain mass is presented. The whole system is equipped with optoelectronic sensors to guard the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, and GPS tag the incoming insect. Insect counts as well as environmental parameters that correlate with insect’s population development are wirelessly transmitted to a central monitoring agency in real time, are visualized and streamed to statistical methods to assist effective control of grain pests. The prototype trap was put in a large plastic barrel (120lt) with 80kg maize. Adult beetles of various species were collected from laboratory rearings and transferred to the experimental barrel. Caught beetle adults were checked and counted after 24h and were compared with the counts from the electronic system. Results from the evaluation procedure showed that our system is very accurate, reaching 98-99% accuracy on automatic counts compared with real detected numbers of adult beetles inside the trap. In this work we emphasize on how the traps can be selforganized in networks that collectively report data at local, regional, country, continental, and global scales using the emerging technology of the Internet of Things (IoT). We argue that smart traps communicating through IoT to report in real-time the level of the pest population from the grain mass straight to a human controlled agency can, in the very near future, have a profound impact on the decision making process in stored grain protection.</p> Panagiotis A. Eliopoulos Illyas Potamitis Iraklis Rigakis ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 268 272 10.5073/jka.2018.463.063 Detection and estimation of population density of bean weevils (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored pulses via bioacoustic analysis https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10673 <p>Stored product insects, produce acoustic emissions by moving, feeding or ovipositing inside the grain mass. These sounds can be used not only for detection purposes, but also for population density estimation. Acoustic emissions of adults of <em>Acanthoscelides obtectus</em> (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and <em>Callosobruchus maculatus</em> (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were recorded infesting various pulses in varying population densities from 1 to 500 adults/kg product. The acoustic analysis system is being described. Population density, type of grain and pest species had significant influence on the number of sounds. The system was 100% precise in negative predictions and considerably successful in positive predictions. The system was very accurate (80-100%) in detecting insect presence even in the “critical” density of 1 adult/kg product, the most common threshold for classifying a stored mass as “infested” or “not infested”. Our study suggests that automatic monitoring of the infestation state in bulk grain is feasible in small containers. This kind of service can assist reliable decision making if it can be transferred to larger storage establishments (eg. silos). Our results are discussed on the basis of enhancing the use of acoustic sensors as a decision support system in stored product IPM.</p> Panagiotis A. Eliopoulos Illyas Potamitis ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 272 275 10.5073/jka.2018.463.064 PHID-Coleo - a database identification tool for wood-boring beetles in plant health interceptions https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10674 <p>Recent examples for the introduction of wood-breeding beetles in Europe include the asian longhorn beetles <em>Anoplophora</em> spp. and <em>Aromia bungii</em> (red-necked longhorn beetle). These and other woodboring beetle species pose a high risk of economic damage to trees and wood products. Smaller beetles like the powderpost beetles from the families Bostrichidae and Lyctidae also have the potential for causing considerable damage. These are often not identified adequately during inspections of wood packaging materials, making it impossible to assess their risk for becoming invasive. This project will aim at closing that gap. Our project PHID-Coleo (= Plant Health Identification of Coleoptera) has the objective to develop new diagnostic tools for the identification of potentially invasive and economically important beetles that can be found in wood packaging materials. The identification methods include classical identification keys based on morphological characters as well as molecular methods based on DNA analysis by PCR (barcoding). The methods for species identification will be supplemented by molecular analyses of introduced populations to clarify within species variations. Such methods will make it possible to determine the taxonomic relationship of samples from different areas and to draw conclusions about the introduction pathways, resulting in more efficient monitoring of the invasive species and preventing their spread. PHID-Coleo will build a freely accessible database of relevant species which are potentially invasive.</p> Olaf Zimmermann Philpp Bauer Iris Häußermann Martin Hasselmann Claus P. W. Zebitz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 275 279 10.5073/jka.2018.463.065 Visible Near Infrared Hyperspectral (VNIH) technique to differentiate <i>Trogoderma variabile</i> reared on different commodities https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10676 Manjree Agarwal Thamer Al-Shuwalli Anupiya Nugaliyadde Penghao Wang Kok Wal Wong Yonglin Ren ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 280 280 10.5073/jka.2018.463.066 In search of a new attractant for monitoring <i>Stegobium paniceum</i> L. (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10677 <p><em>Stegobium paniceum</em> (L.) is a major pest for several stored products worldwide. Monitoring methods for this species, based on pheromone traps, are affected by the complexity and expensiveness of the chemical synthesis of the pheromone isomer [(2S,3R,1’R)-Stegobinone] and/or by its lost of efficacy after two weeks at room temperature. So other semiochemicals that can be exploited for monitoring this species are highly desirable. In this study was tested the behavioral response in two-choice olfactometer of S. paniceum adults to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) collected from colonized substrate. The elution of the headspace collection from <em>S. paniceum</em> colony elicited attraction of both sexes. The GC-MS chemical analysis of the extract indicated the presence of several alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes and fatty acids, some of them already reported to attract other stored product coleopteran pests and promising candidates for further studies to test their attractiveness on<em> S. paniceum</em>.</p> Salvatore Guarino Stefano Colazza Ezio Peri Maurizio Sajeva Giuseppe Bragherie Nadia Zini Marco Caimi Pietro Zito ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 280 283 10.5073/jka.2018.463.067 Field trials on attractiveness of the synthetic sex pheromone of the four-spotted bean weevil, <i>Callosobruchus maculatus</i> Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10678 <p>Quarantine pests of legumes pose a threat to many countries of the world including Russia. Pests that can enter the country as a result of the transportation of regulated articles (by sea, air, road, rail, etc.) pose a particular danger (Shutova, 1970; Dankvert et al., 2009). Monitoring and identification of legume pests is complicated by the fact that small beetles have a hidden mode of life. One of the most dangerous quarantine pest is the fourspotted bean weevil <em>Callosobruchus maculatus</em> Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), which is widespread throughout the world and can cause serious economic losses in agriculture of Russia. Research work on the identification, synthesis and laboratory evaluation of the synthetic sex pheromone of <em>Callosobruchus maculatus</em> was carried out at the All-Russia Plant Quarantine Center (Bykovo, Moscow region). Tests have shown that synthesized sex pheromone of <em>C. maculatus</em> has a high attractiveness for males. An effective dose of pheromone that attracts males of the four-spotted bean weevil has been found at the laboratory and is equal to 0.5 µg per dispenser. Thereafter tests have shown that the concentration of pheromone above 2 µg does not cause behavioral response in beetles and doesn’t result in contact with the stimulus. Dispensers with doses of pheromone from 4 to 8 mg have been used with a Delta trap in storage. The use of pheromone traps can help in pest identification, decreasing or complete avoidance of repeated treatments with chemicals at low pest population. The results of this study will be presented and discussed on the basis of laboratory and literature data.</p> Ekaterina Sinitsyna Nikolay Atanov Ilya Mityushev ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 283 288 10.5073/jka.2018.463.068 A multi-parameter grain detection system based on industry 4.0 https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10679 <p>A multi-parameter grain detection system based on industry 4.0 was used to map all kinds of sensors and devices into multiple network addresses through the integration of equipment, to realize the local visual perception and the network transmission of various grain data, using software plug-in architecture technology to build online extension of the software to achieve the corresponding grain multi-parameter monitoring plug-ins; setting sensor and device communication protocol standards to achieve remote monitoring of various grain situation data on the scene equipment Remote debugging and maintenance work to form a remote data center and equipment maintenance center. The system is compatible with a wide range of heterogeneous sensors and devices online and with a high degree of online scalability.</p> Feng Hao Guo Daolin Xie Peng Jiang Xuemel Zhao Xiaojun ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 288 292 10.5073/jka.2018.463.069 Global establishment risk of stored products beetles https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10680 <p>Stored-product beetles were regarded as some of the most important stored-product pests in the world. Predicting which one in hundreds of potential invasive stored-product beetles is the most likely to invade a region presents a significant challenge. A global presence/absence dataset, including 201 economically significant stored beetles in 143 countries/regions, was analysed using a Self-Organizing Map (SOM) to categorize regions based on similarities in species assemblages. This method is able to rank these stored-product beetles based on risk of establishment indices (values between 0 and 1). From the six countries/regions selected from each continent, we can have an overview of the global invasive risk of this group of beetles. We also found that those countries geographically close were clustered together by the SOM analysis because they have similar beetle assemblages and therefore represent greater threats to each other as sources of invasive stored-product beetles.</p> Yujia Qin Lin Wang Vaclav Stejskal Zhihong Li ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 463 292 294 10.5073/jka.2018.463.070 Bin coring: a simple practice for improving aeration performance and saving energy https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10682 <p>The coring operation consists of removing the center portion of the grain mass, or core of the silosilo, to improve airflow distribution. Additional benefit of this practice is the elimination of a significant portion of the fine material, which is a source of fungal inoculum and feed for insects. The effect of coring on airflow distribution through a grain mass has been previously addressed, but the effect on energy savings was not fully quantified. Thus, the goals of this reseach were: 1) to quantify the airflow increase due to the coring operation of a silosilo full of wheat; and 2) to quantify the reduction on fan runtime and energy consumtion due to improvement in airflow distribution and airflow increase after coring. The effect of coring on airflow was quantified using the AireAr software, and the effect on aeration efficiency was studied through simulation using a specialized software (PHAST-FDM). For levels of coring (0%, 3%, 5% and 8% of total grain mass) and four levels of nonuniformity of airflow (center side difference) (30, 20, 10 and 0) were considered. Results indicated that the coring operation reduced the total time to achieve cooling, number of fan run hours, and fan power consumption. The main effect of the coring operation was the increase in specific airflow (up to 45% increase). Energy savings increased with coring, obtaining savings of 11%, 28% and 30% for 3%, 5% and 8% of coring, respectively. It was concluded that coring the silosilo by unloading from 3 to 8% of the stored grain mass is a recommendable practice, because it increases the specific airflow rate and airflow uniformity, reduces fan run hours and generates energy (and cost) savings.</p> Leandro Cardoso Diego de la Torre Ricardo Bartosik ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 295 301 10.5073/jka.2018.463.071 Application of transverse ventilation in grain storage in China https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10683 Tianyu Shi Fujun Li Lei Wei Yang Cao QianQian Li Xiangkun Zhu Yongyi Zhang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 301 302 10.5073/jka.2018.463.072 Technical and economic evaluation of ambient and chilled aeration strategies to maintain the quality of paddy rice during storage in a tropical climate https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10684 <p>Warm and moist conditions of some tropical climate regions make it difficult to use ambient aeration to cool stored grain, which contributes to pest problems and increases dependence on chemical control as part of grain management strategies. Grain chilling is a non-chemical alternative to cool grain stored under high risk climatic conditions. The objective of this research was to use computer simulation to evaluate the technical and economic viability of using grain chilling compared to four ambient aeration strategies developed for paddy rice stored under the tropical climatic conditions of the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The minimum grain temperature achieved through ambient aeration at the end of the six-month simulated storage period was 30.8°C, using an aeration strategy based on a grain-ambient temperature differential greater than 10°C. Grain chilling lowered the average grain temperature from 35°C to below 15°C in 117 hours and the maximum average temperature it registered after six months of storage was 15.5°C. The economic evaluation of the ambient aeration and chilling strategies determined that the operational costs of grain chilling were 1.83 US $/t lower than ambient aeration plus chemical control of pests. However, the initial cost of the grain chiller made the net present cost (NPC) of the grain chilling strategy 0.22 US $/t higher than the cost of ambient aeration plus chemical control over a 10-year analysis. Several potential financial options were analyzed to make the grain chiller economically feasible for a rice miller in Costa Rica.</p> Alejandro Morales-Quiros Carlos Campabadal John Lawrence Benjamin Plumier Dirk E. Maier ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 10.5073/jka.2018.463.073 Chilling temperature and low content to keep soybean grain quality during storage https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10685 <p>Soybeans are used as food, feed, oil and fuel. Losses may happen at harvesting, transportation, and mainly during storage. Moisture content (MC %) and temperature (T °C) of the soybean grain mass during storage are the main factors affecting quality, quantity and value of the product by favoring the development of microorganisms and insects. Large grain chillers have been used to maintain soybean quality and reduce insect infestation during storage. To evaluate the effect of MC and temperature on the quality parameters of soybean seeds, samples were stored at 58±2% RH, with five different MCs, at 15 °C (chilling temperature) and 30 °C (average temperature inside silos in Brazil) for 180 days. The following was observed: reduction in the MC at higher temperature; the weight of soybeans was maintained at either temperature when the MC was at about 12%; MC above 14% reduced the weight value independent of storage temperature; at 15°C the weight of 1,000 seeds was maintained during storage; low MC and temperature kept germination and vigor of the seeds at high rates; low MC and temperature reduced electrical conductivity; there was no noticeable influence of the storage temperature, regardless of the MC of the beans, on the free fatty acid content. In general, quality attributes tend to be reduced during storage, being more remarkable at higher temperature and MC of the seeds. In conclusion, the temperature of 15ºC, which simulates grain cooling conditions, favors the maintenance of quality, quantity and value of soybean for long-term storage.</p> Roberta J. A. Rigueira Adilio F. Lacerda Filho Flavio A. Lazzari Kaio K. M. Marques Marcelo P. Coelho ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 308 316 10.5073/jka.2018.463.074 Assessment of a mobile solar biomass hybrid dryer for insect disinfestation in dried maize grains https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10686 <p>Considerable losses of stored food grains occur through insect infestation in tropical countries because climatic conditions are conducive for insect activity throughout the year. Studies have shown that in order to kill stored grain insects of all life stages temperatures above 50°C are required. However, grain simply laid in the sun or placed in a solar dryer does not reach such high temperatures. This study describes the use of a 1 tonne batch capacity mobile solar biomass hybrid dryer for disinfestation of infested maize and prevention of F1 progeny emergence in stored maize grains. To assess the effect of temperature and exposure period on mortality of maize weevils, infested maize in experimental cages were exposed for 3 and 6 hours of thermal disinfestation treatment in the dryer. Comparing the heat generated in the dryer under hybrid mode operation where additional heat is generated by a biomass furnace in addition to solar, a mean temperature of 67°C was recorded compared to a mean ambient temperature of 36°C. Results showed that there was no significant difference (p &lt; 0.05) in mortality of maize weevils during disinfestation treatment for 3 and 6-hour exposure periods. Mortality of 100% was obtained for samples disinfested in the highest tray (level 4) in the dryer. After 30 days of storage of disinfested maize grains, there was no emergence of F1 progeny from the maize grains exposed for 3 and 6 hours. Effect of ambient temperature and open sun exposure periods in the control set-up resulted in low mean percent mortality. Also, samples from the control set-up at both 3 and 6-hour exposure periods showed emergence of F1 progeny after storage. From this study, it can be concluded that an exposure period of 3 hours (or perhaps even less) in the solar biomass hybrid dryer could prevent damage by Sitophilus zeamais to stored maize grains after thermal disinfestation at a mean temperature of 67°C.</p> Joseph A. Akowuha Ahmad Addo Ato Bart-Plange ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 316 324 10.5073/jka.2018.463.075 Green ecological grain storage technology and quality control in China https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10687 <p>Green ecological grain storage technologies (GEGSTs) are the means of controlling stored grain quality, and quality changes of stored grain are the basis of GEGSTs control. This paper introduces that GEGSTs are widely used in China, including monitoring and early warning of stored grain pest and mould, pest control by using food-grade materials, controlled atmosphere for pest control, ventilation for lowering and equalizing temperature, low and quasi-low temperature grain storage, treatment of hot spots, etc. And it introduces that grain processing enterprises’ and market’s request for grain quality, is called “quality control”. It also clarifies that stored grain quality control is the purpose, and emphasizes that GEGSTs control is the process, so GEGSTs control should serve for quality control. Therefore, we propose that the technology application and the quality control of grain storage are equally important, and without the quality control, the technology application could be invalid, especially for sensitive areas in grain bulks. In the process of grain storage, special attention should be paid to quality changes in the sensitive areas, like real-time monitoring. Identify and utilize scientific and reasonable technology accordingly, including related technologies and equipment, to improve "overall" quality control level of stored grain bulks, and to gradually standardize them. By means of GEGSTs, positive ecological storage conditions are effectively utilized, which helps us achieve the purposes of safety, no pollution, high quality and nutrition during grain storage.</p> Yongan Xu Lei Wei Yang Cao Pelhuan He Tianyu Shi Dan Zheng Xin Chen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 325 328 10.5073/jka.2018.463.076 A new approach to acoustic insect detection in grain storage https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10688 <p>Insect pests in grain storages can cause severe financial losses. Infested grain needs to be treated and can be sold only with lower profit. Intense infestation can lead to contamination with mycotoxins and total loss of stock. Therefore, an early detection of insect storage pests is of great importance to farmers and storage keepers but is difficult to obtain in large amounts of grain. Besides conventional detection methods such as insect traps and monitoring of temperature and relative humidity, acoustic monitoring can identify insect infestation. Insects in grain and other stored products produce sounds at a low level during movement and feeding activity. A new acoustic system was developed as part of the project “InsectTap” to increase the detectability of insect sounds. Highly sensitive microphones were installed inside a metal tube that increased the surface on which beetle signals could be detected. Additionally, the tube worked as a beetle trap recording all sounds from even one single beetle inside the trap. The tube system was tested in 1 and 8 m³ boxes filled with wheat. Infestation could be detected at a very early stage about 8 weeks before a temperature rise, or beetles at the grain surface indicated an infestation. In the next step, this “Beetle Sound Tube”-System will be installed in different grain silos aiming for automatic early detection and specific identification of infestation. The information provided to the farmer or storage keeper allows early and specific treatment to reduce losses. Additionally, the introduction of parasitoids via the tube system will be tested to increase the efficacy of biological control.</p> Christina Mueller-Blenkle Sascha Kirchner Isabell Szallies Cornel Adler ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 328 337 10.5073/jka.2018.463.077 Controlling insects in stored grain by disturbing the grain https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10689 <p>Insects can cause damage to stored grain, especially on smallholder farms in the tropics. <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> (maize weevil, MW) and <em>Rhyzopertha dominica</em> (lesser grain borer, LGB) are often involved. Our objective was to determine, by four experiments, if physical disturbance of grain can control these pests. In Experiment 1, 2.6-L unsealed recycled coffee cans were each loaded with 1 kg of maize and 25 live adult MW/kg. Every 12 h, disturbed treatment cans were manually rolled through one circumference. After 160 d, live MW numbers had been reduced by 93% compared to undisturbed cans. In Experiment 2, MW-infested maize was placed in 20-L plastic cans and stored by farmers in Tanzania. Each farmer had three cans. Two were disturbed by shaking morning and evening and the third was left undisturbed. After 90 d, MW populations had increased in the undisturbed containers, but had decreased to zero in every disturbed container. In Experiments 3 (and 4), maize (wheat) infested with 25 adult MW/kg (LGB/kg) was placed in six boxes. Three of the boxes were disturbed every 12 h by use of Sukup motor-driven grain stirrers; the other three were undisturbed. After 120 days, MW numbers in undisturbed boxes had increased, but were zero in stirred boxes. In Experiment 4, 80-d samples showed increased numbers of LGB in undisturbed boxes but reductions of over 98% in stirred boxes. Quality of disturbed grain was similar or better than that of undisturbed grain. This work suggests that grain disturbance may be an effective non-chemical, non-hermetic physical approach for control of stored grain insects.</p> Carl Bern Denis Bbosa Thomas Brumm Rashid Suleiman Kurt Rosentrater Tyler Rau Dirk Maier Rachael Barnes Michelle Friedmann ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 337 342 10.5073/jka.2018.463.078 The adoption of thermosiphon powered, ground level phosphine application systems in Australia. https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10690 <p>Safe storage of grain on Australian farms requires a sealable silo to exclude grain insects and enable effective fumigation to avoid the development of insect resistance to phosphine. A sealable silo must also be fitted with a pressure relief system that allows air to enter the silo rapidly, to avoid damage to the silo fabric, in the event of a sudden temperature drop and subsequent contraction of the internal atmosphere. The most effective pressure relief system allows air into the headspace by a pipe attached to the silo wall, which is connected to an oil bath valve at ground level to facilitate servicing. The oil bath valve prevents grain insects entering and will allow air to bypass when the internal pressure exceeds or falls below 30 – 40 Pascals. The addition of a pipe connecting the headspace pipe to the base of the silo creates a gas recirculation loop. Ambient temperature influences the air within the external pipe and Thermosiphon currents are created, circulating the internal atmosphere. In 2004, a silo manufacturer in Western Australia proposed such a recirculation loop adding an aluminium phosphide (AlP) reaction chamber into the circuit at ground level. A ground-level application system removes the need to climb the silo, making fumigation simpler and safer. Initial experiments in 2005 revealed that the phosphine gas would be extracted from the reaction chamber by Thermosiphon air movement, without building to dangerous concentrations. Seven silo manufacturers across Australia have adopted the Thermosiphon recirculation system linked to a ground level AlP reaction chamber, producing nearly 12,000 transportable silos of 80 – 100t capacity in that period. The development of the recirculation system and effectiveness of Thermosiphon gas distribution is discussed in this paper.</p> Christopher R. Newman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 343 350 10.5073/jka.2018.463.079 Lessons learned for phosphine distribution and efficacy by using wireless phosphine sensors https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10691 Agrafioti Paraskevi Athanassiou G. Christos Sotiroudas Vasilis ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 351 355 10.5073/jka.2018.463.080 Use of a 3D finite element model for post fumigation phosphine movement analysis https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10692 <p>Phosphine is a dangerous gas commonly used in fumigations throughout the world. Grain that has not fully released the phosphine it absorbed during fumigation may continue to desorb phosphine into the headspace of a storage structure. U.S. OSHA standards for handling phosphine state the acceptable limit at 0.3 ppm. If this limit is exceeded grain handling may become dangerous. It is important to understand the process of phosphine venting and desorption in order to ensure safe handling of fumigated grain in silos and during shipments. In order to achieve this, the venting and release of phosphine was studied on location in a well-sealed grain silo in Lake Grace, Western Australia, to serve as a set of data for verification of a computational model. This situation was then modeled using a 3D finite element model and compared to the real world results. Results were calculated using two fumigant desorption models based on previous literature, a reversed sorption model and an air-grain equilibrium model. Simulations reproduced accurate trends of desorption but did not accurately reproduce the quantity of fumigant, with a 55.5% error for the model based on reversed sorption equations and 86.3% error for the air-grain equilibrium based model. For both models, simulations were conducted to compare the effectiveness of existing grain venting regulations at producing grain that is within safe handling limits. These results highlight the necessity for continued desorption research and the importance of following venting guidelines.</p> Ben Plumier Dirk E. Maier Yonglin Ren Matt Schramm ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 355 363 10.5073/jka.2018.463.081 A novel engineering design of small scale metallic silo for food safety in rural India https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10693 Arjoo Nandal Santosh Satya K. K. Pant S. N. Nalk ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 363 364 10.5073/ka.2018.463.082 Food industry practices affecting integrated pest management https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10694 <p>Manufacturers of dry food products have a real challenge to exclude pests everywhere along the food chain because of the rather complex and different environments of food industry buildings. Current practices that influence pest presence and development in food industry facilities have been identified in the stages of food plant design, food ingredient reception and storage, processing or conditioning of finished food, and marketing. The preventive pest control measures in the food industry may be ineffective because of a non-observance of simple rules of good manufacturing practice (GMP), such as permanent control and monitoring of critical points or the ban of unsafe practices favourable to pest entry and infestation in food plants. The underutilization of methods for rapid assessment of pest presence and movement within food industry facilities, as well as the inability to rely on pest monitoring data for the economic damage threshold (EDT), are also underlined. Practical tools for processing data from pest monitoring systems should improve pest presence detection and alert. More realistic EDTs need to be proposed with direct links to decision-making support. More practical predictive models are also required for predicting the long-term efficacy and resilience of corrective control methods in food processing buildings, which should render the implementation of complex IPM programs easier.</p> Pasquale Trematerra Francis Fleurat-Lessard ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 364 374 10.5073/jka.2018.463.083 Static and dynamic stress analysis of flat bottom-bamboo reinforced concrete silo for rough rice storage https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10695 <p>Concrete silos are one of the most robust and reliable structures for grain storage in tropical countries. This study analysed the structural behavior of a low cost, flat bottom bamboo-reinforced concrete (BRC) silo for rough rice storage. This research included the design and development of a BRC silo in accordance with the guidelines mentioned by the Indian Standard (IS) codes. The Finite Element Method was employed to develop the stress profile in the silo walls under “grain at rest” and “grain filling” conditions. The results obtained were further compared with experimental results, classic silo theories (Janssen’s theory) and standards of different countries in the world. The numerical technique gave stress magnitudes very close to those of the experimental results. The classic theories as well as the standards of different countries predicted an over estimation of the magnitude of stresses in the BRC silo. This would result in extra cost of construction of BRC silos. The study also suggested that the vertical stresses were most predominant under static and filling conditions. Maximum stresses were developed at the silo bottom. This study is expected to aid the development of economical silos with minimum wall thickness and material requirement which are ideal for on-site construction and use by smallholder farmers.</p> Lakshmi E. Jayachandran Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 374 379 10.5073/jka.2018.463.084 Increase of paddy moisture with automatic aeration in a warehouse guided by adsorption equilibrium absolute humidity equation https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10696 <p>An automatic bulk monitoring and aeration controller was programmed with an adsorption equilibrium absolute humidity (CAE)equation and was used to aerate paddy with the aim to increase moisture content (MC) and preventing fissuring. The ventilation control window for rewetting paddy was developed according to two conditions: (i) the average grain bulk temperature (t&lt;sub&gt;g&lt;/sub&gt;) is higher than the dewpoint temperature (DPT&lt;sub&gt;a&lt;/sub&gt;) of the atmosphere; and (ii) the equilibrium absolute humidity (EAH&lt;sub&gt;g&lt;/sub&gt;) of grain moisture content plus 1 percentage point is lower than the absolute humidity (AH&lt;sub&gt;a&lt;/sub&gt;) of the atmosphere. The ventilators were turned on when the atmosphere state point was within the ventilation windowand turned off outside that window. In a humid subtropical monsoon climate, during Oct. 8&lt;sup&gt;th&lt;/sup&gt; to Nov. 1&lt;sup&gt;st&lt;/sup&gt;, 2013, the system was used for a paddy depot of 1035 t in Dianjiang, Chongqing province. The natural humid air was introduced into the paddy bulk by negative pressure suction aeration during the 10-12 h night time period and allowed to equilibrate with grain kernels during the 12-14 h day time period. Aeration increased grain MC by 0.6 percentage points with two 1.5 kW axial flow ventilators and power consumption of 209 kW·h. The unit energy consumption was 0.336 KW·h (1% moisture·t)&lt;sup&gt;-1&lt;/sup&gt;. The broken milled rice percentage was decreased by 2-3 percentage points. In the warm temperate semi-humid monsoon climate, during April 13&lt;sup&gt;th&lt;/sup&gt; to June 16&lt;sup&gt;th&lt;/sup&gt;, 2017, the system was used to rewet japonic paddy in a 2489 t depot in Qihe, Shandong province. The conditions for running two 0.85 kW axial flow fans were: (i) when the atmosphere relative humidity (RH&lt;sub&gt;a&lt;/sub&gt;) is =80% and its temperature (t&lt;sub&gt;a&lt;/sub&gt;) is &lt;28°C, t&lt;sub&gt;g&lt;/sub&gt;&gt;DPT&lt;sub&gt;a&lt;/sub&gt;, and EAH&lt;sub&gt;g&lt;/sub&gt;&lt;AH&lt;sub&gt;a&lt;/sub&gt;; and (ii) when RH&lt;sub&gt;a&lt;/sub&gt; &gt;80% and t&lt;sub&gt;a&lt;/sub&gt; &lt;28°C. Whenever t&lt;sub&gt;a&lt;/sub&gt; was &gt;28°C, the two fans were switched off. This rewetting aeration increased grain MC from 13.5% to 14.0%, and the unit energy consumption was 0.455 kW·h (1% moisture·t)&lt;sup&gt;-1&lt;/sup&gt;. The percentages of average head rice yield and damaged grains after aeration were 71.7% and 7.7%, respectively.</p> Xingjun Li Zidan Wu Shude Yin Yongqing Zhao Yisan Duan Efeng Yan Xiaoming Wu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 10.5073/jka.2018.463.085 Drying ginger and preserving 6-gingerol https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10697 <p>Ginger rhizome (<em>Zingiber officinale</em>) is widely used as a spice or as a medicinal plant. The major bioactive compound in fresh ginger rhizome is 6-gingerol and it is known for having a number of physiological effects. This compound is heat-sensitive and during cooking or drying will transform into 6-shogaol. Hence, the 6- gingerol content is used to evaluate the quality of dried ginger. The content of 6-gingerol during drying was measured using HPLC. Several factors that could affect the 6-gingerol content were considered and a predictive model for changes in 6-gingerol has been developed from the experimental data. The predictive model includes a single term drying model that predicts the changes of moisture content during drying. Drying time and relative humidity (ranging from 10% to 40%) impacted 6-gingerol content whereas drying air temperature (ranging from 30ºC to 60ºC) had a lesser effect. It was also found that the 6-gingerol content in fresh rhizomes was highly variable and thus required thorough testing prior to drying to be able to make the prediction more accurate.</p> LiZhuo Li Robert Driscoll George Srzednicki ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 388 395 10.5073/jka.2018.463.086 Numerical modeling of the horizontal flow and concentration distribution of nitrogen within a stored-paddy bulk in a large warehouse https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10698 <p>The insect population in grain stores can be kept under control by maintaining a high concentration of N&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; gas throughout the grain bed. The development of controlled atmosphere storage technology for insect control requires an accurate prediction of the distribution of introduced gases in bulk grain. In this paper, based on the convective-diffusion model, the horizontal flow of N&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;, which was introduced into the paddy bulk in a large warehouse by means of the horizontal ventilation system, are modeled as fluid flow in a porous medium. The experimental data for N&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; transfer and flow through ducts and bulk paddy were used to validate the model. The equations were solved using the finite difference method, and the predictions from the proposed model were in good agreement with the experimental results. The concentration distribution and flow uniformity of nitrogen in stored paddy were also analyzed during the nitrogen-filling procedure for CA storage. It was shown that it is feasible and practical to introduce nitrogen into stored bulk grain in a large warehouse by means of the horizontal ventilation system.</p> Yuancheng Wang Fujun Li Yang Cao Lei Wei Hongying Cui ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 395 400 10.5073/jka.2018.463.087 Study on rapid detection of degree of freshness of paddy rice in China https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10699 <p>This paper describes research results and progress of rapid detection of the degree of freshness of paddy. We studied the changes of degree of freshness, fat acidity value and taste evaluated value of paddy under different storage conditions in the laboratory. The correlations between the degree of freshness, fat acidity value and taste evaluated value were analyzed. The results showed that there was a significant negative correlation (p &lt; 0.01) between the degree of freshnessand fat acidity value. The correlation coefficient was -0.845. The degree of freshness was significantly positively correlated with the taste evaluated value, and most of the correlation coefficients were above 0.9. The nationwide investigation result of paddy’s degree of freshness showed that there was an obvious distinction in the degree of freshness between newly harvested rice and rice harvested in previous years. The degree of distinction of indica rice achieved 85%. Due to its special reasons, japonica rice had a lower degree of distinction, but it also reached 75%.</p> Suping Yu Cuixia Shi Yue Zhang Yan Gao Dongping Yang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 400 406 10.5073/jka.2018.463.088 Fumigation with Ph3 using automatic generation - Presentation of results of recent trials https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10700 Pushpaksen Asher ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 406 406 10.5073/jka.2018.463.089 Browning Mechanism and Process Optimization during MaizeMaize KX7349 Drying https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10701 <p>Browning of KX7349 maize during drying occurred mainly in the pericarp layer. Browning was caused by oxidation of water soluble matter in the pericarp layer. Moisture content had no significant influence on browning rate. Drying temperature, drying time and drying method (vacuum drying or hot-air drying) had significant influence on the browning rate. Through lab research, a prediction model for the relationship between browning rate and drying air temperature was developed. Total drying time is y=- 13.086+0.289X&lt;sub&gt;1&lt;/sub&gt;+1.045X&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;, where y is the browning rate(%), X&lt;sub&gt;1&lt;/sub&gt; is drying temperature(°C), X&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; is total drying time(h), the value range of X&lt;sub&gt;1&lt;/sub&gt; was 30~80, the value range of X&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; was 2~10. The concurrent and counter current dryer was applied in Nenjiang to optimize the drying process. The hot air temperature in each drying stage was reduced. When the hot air temperature of the 1&lt;sup&gt;st&lt;/sup&gt;, 2&lt;sup&gt;nd&lt;/sup&gt;, 3&lt;sup&gt;rd&lt;/sup&gt; drying stage was reduced to 95°C,75°C,60°C respectively, the browning rate was reduced to 15%~16%. Keeping the hot air temperature constant at each drying stage, by drying twice, the browning rate was reduced to 4%~6%.</p> Chongxia Zhang Xiaoping Yan Fang Wu Yang He ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 406 411 10.5073/jka.2018.463.090 Temperature: Implications for biology and control of stored-product insects https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10704 Paul G. Fields ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 412 413 10.5073/jka.2018.463.091 Evaluation of insecticidal efficacy and persistence of Nigerian raw diatomaceous earth against <i>Callosobruchus maculatus</i> (F.) on stored cowpea https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10705 <p>The insecticidal efficacy and persistence of Nigerian raw diatomaceous earth (DE) were evaluated in the laboratory on cowpea against <em>Callosobruchus maculatus</em> (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The raw DE was applied to 1.5 kg lots of cowpea seeds at 0 (untreated control), 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg, and a commercial DE formulation (Protect-It<sup>®</sup>) applied at 1000 mg/kg was included in the test as positive (treated) control. The treated cowpea seeds were kept under ambient laboratory conditions (26 - 34°C and 24 - 93% RH. Bioassays were conducted on samples taken from each treatment at the day of storage and every 30 d for 6 consecutive months. Adult <em>C. maculatus</em> were exposed for 3 and 5 d to the samples and adult mortality was assessed over this exposure interval and progeny production and seed damage were assessed after additional 30 d. On freshly treated cowpea, both the raw DE and Protect-It<sup>®</sup> were highly effective against <em>C. maculatus</em> causing 100% adult mortality following 5 d of exposure. In general, the raw DE was less persistent on cowpea providing complete adult mortality only for two months. Protect-It<sup>®</sup> on the other hand was stable over the 6- month period of storage causing 95.8 to 100% adult mortality. None of the treatments completely inhibited progeny production after 2-3-moths storage period. The results of this study indicated that Protect-It<sup>®</sup> may provide suitable protection for 6 months against <em>C. maculatus</em>, but the raw DE in its present state is not suitable for long-term protection against this insect pest.</p> Baba Gana J. Kabir Hauwa T. Abdulrahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 413 418 10.5073/jka.2018.463.092 Thermal disinfestation of stored grains by solar energy https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10706 Shams Fawki Walid Aboelsoud Ahmed El Baz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 419 419 10.5073/jka.2018.463.093 Retrospect, insights and foresights: <p>Biological control of <i>Anobium puntcatum</i> with <i>Spathius exarator</i></p> https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10707 <p>Biological control using beneficial organisms is getting more and more important in Integrated Pest Management. An effective strategy in the fight against the most common timber pest species, the furniture beetle <em>Anobium punctatum</em>, is based on the parasitoid wasp species <em>Spathius exarator</em>. This braconid wasp parasitizes its host species by piercing its ovipositor directly through the wood surface followed by oviposition onto the beetle larva. After feeding on the larva and pupation, the adult wasp emerges through a tiny 0.5 mm wide wood hole, which can be clearly distinguished from the 2 mm wide hole of <em>A. punctatum</em>. This enables us to observe easily the treatment success as each new <em>S. exarator</em> exit hole is equivalent to one killed beetle larva. Between 2012 and 2017, the braconid wasps were introduced into about 80 <em>A. punctatum</em> infested buildings. At least twelve treatments over a period of up to three years were performed. On exactly defined areas, the newly emerged exit holes of <em>A. punctatum</em> and <em>S. exarator</em> were counted and the parasitisation rate was calculated. Here we present pooled data of 29 <em>A. punctatum</em> infested churches, successfully treated and monitored over a period of one to five years. Furthermore, as a representative sample, we show the results of one church over a period of six years. <br>We demonstrate the biological control of the common furniture beetle with this braconid wasp as an efficient, sustainable alternative to conventional residual methods. However, after a period of up to three years intensive treatment, a continuous monitoring-program with necessary additional single treatments should follow.</p> Alexander Kassel Christine Opitz Judith Auer ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 419 424 10.5073/jka.2018.463.094 Prospects of entomopathogens in post-harvest integrated pest management https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10708 <p>In these exploratory experiments, entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi were investigated for the management of the populations of postharvest insect pests. Nematodes were screened for pathogenicity to<em> Plodia interpunctella</em> (Hübner), while nematodes and fungi were investigated for virulence to the maize weevil, <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> (Motschulsky). Adults and larvae of <em>P. interpunctellea</em> were screened for susceptibility to the following six nematodes: <em>Heterorhabitis bacteriophora</em> Poinar (HP88, Lewiston and Oswego strains); <em>H. indica</em> Poinar, Karunakar and David (Homl strain); <em>H. marelatus</em> Liu and Berry (Point Reyes strain); <em>H. megidis</em> Poinar, Jackson, and Klein (UK211 strain); and <em>H. zealandica</em> Poinar (NZH3 strain). The nematodes that had the highest virulence to larvae and adults of <em>P. interpunctellea</em> were <em>H. indica, H. megidis</em>, and <em>H. marelatus</em>. Six strains of nematodes were studied, namely <em>H. bacteriophora, H. indica, H. georgiana</em> (K22), <em>Steinernema feltiae</em> SN and<em> S. carpocapsae</em>. All strains of fungi, <em>Beauveria bassiana</em> (GHA) and <em>Metarhizium brunneum</em> (F52) were evaluated for infectivity to adults of <em>S. zeamais</em>. The two strains of Steinernematidae nematodes and a strain of fungus, <em>B. bassiana</em> were found to cause significant mortality of the weevils compared to the rest of the entomopathogens and the control. To demonstrate the practical application of entomopathogens, wettable dust of <em>B. bassiana</em> were dispensed on jute bags after which weevils were exposed to the treated surfaces for 30 min. The exposed weevils recorded between 90 to 100% mortality 14-d after exposure. Additional study demonstrated that the parasitoid, <em>Habrobracon hebetor</em> (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) could be integrated with entomopathogenic nematodes. These experiments demonstrate the potential usefulness of entomopathogens in the management of stored product Lepidopteran and Coleopteran pests.</p> George N. Mbata David I. Shapiro-Ilan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 424 431 10.5073/jka.2018.463.095 Chilled aeration to control pests and maintain grain quality during the summer storage of wheat in north central region of Kansas https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10709 <p>Chilled aeration allows to cool grain, independent of ambient conditions, to "safe" temperatures where insect, fungi, and spoilage is reduced to the minimum. The objective of this research was to evaluate the advantages of using grain chilling to preserve the quality of grain and reduce post-harvest losses, compared to conventional aeration and storage strategies used during the summer storage of wheat in Central Kansas, U.S.A. The research trials were developed in two 1,350 metric ton (t) steel silos in a Farmer’s Cooperative during the summer and fall of 2015 and 2016. One of the silos was chilled and the other was used as a control managed by the Cooperative. Variables evaluated were: grain temperature, moisture content (MC), grain quality, insect development and reproduction rate. The chilling treatment reduced the grain temperature from 28°C- 39°C to a minimum of 17°C- 17.6°C in less than 250 hours. Grain temperatures below 25°C were not possible during the summer using ambient aeration. Minimum variation of MC was observed in the Chilled silo while ambient aeration reduced the MC by 0.5%. Reproduction rates of RFB and LGB were significantly reduced by chilled temperatures lower than 17°C. Lower temperatures also reduced insects discovered in probe traps and insect damaged kernels (IDK). The energy cost of the grain chiller was between 0.26 US $/t- 0.32 US $/t higher than ambient aeration.</p> Alejandro Morales-Quiros Carlos A. Campabadal Sonia Lazzari Flavio A. Lazzari Dirk E. Maier Thomas W. Phillips ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 431 439 10.5073/jka.2018.463.096 Does it really work? 25 years biological control in Germany https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10710 <p>Stored-product protection, museum environments as well as protection of materials are growing fields of application of macro-organisms for biological control in Central Europe during the last 25 years.</p> Sabine Prozell Matthias Schöller ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 439 441 10.5073/jka.2018.463.097 Storage of mungbean in hermetic PVC tank https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10711 <p>This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of hermetic storage on quality of mungbean. About 260 kg of mungbean samples were stored in an especially design 350 L capacity hermetic PVC tanks (hermetic tank) and non-hermetic PVC tanks (control tank). Hermetic PVC tanks were closed air-tightly. All tanks were randomly placed in a warehouse. Each hermetic and control PVC tanks were artificially infested by 50 unsexed <em>Callosobruchus chinensis</em> kept in 4 glass jars containing 100 g of mungbean and jars were dipped in four different depths. The gas concentrations in the tanks were monitored up to 6 months intervals. Percentages of germination, moisture content, and grain damage were evaluated at the end of the storage. The oxygen content of hermetic samples was dropped to 11±1.2% and carbon dioxide content was increased up to 7±0.7% within 6 months of storage. Live insects of <em>C. chinensis</em> were not found in hermetic samples after 6 months but abundant population of <em>C. chinensis</em> was found in the control PVC tank just after one month. After 6 months, germination percentage of the mungbean samples stored in hermetic tanks had decreased from 95±3% to 82±4%, whereas it was decreased from 95±3% to 47±7% in control tanks due to grain damage. Percent grain damage of the hermetic sample was only 4.5±1% compared to the heavy insect damage of the control samples. Moisture content of hermetic samples remained unchanged compare to the control.</p> B. D. Rohitha Prasantha K. M. H. Kumarasinha G. A. M. S. Emitiyagoda ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 441 447 10.5073/jka.2018.463.098 Combination of mating disruption and parasitoid <i>Habrobracon hebetor</i> against <i>Plodia interpunctella</i> in a chocolate factory https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10712 <p>A field experiment of 4 years’ duration was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of combining the mating disruption (MD) formulation Dismate ZETA (9Z,12E-tetradecadienyl acetate), with the parasitoid <em>Habrobracon hebetor</em> against the Indianmeal moth <em>Plodia interpunctella</em> in a chocolate factory. The experimental period began early in 2011 and ended in late 2014. Begane Dismate dispensers were placed in the facility from 2011 to 2014 and <em>H. hebetor</em> was released in 2014. Pheromone-baited traps were used to monitor the flight activity of the male moths and oviposition Petri dish cups were placed to assess the progeny production of <em>P. interpunctella</em> females. Following the start of MD, a decrease in the number of <em>P. interpunctella</em> males caught in monitoring traps was observed from 2011 to 2013. A further decline in the moth population was noted in 2014, when MD was combined with the release of parasitoids. The presence of larvae in the oviposition cups was occasionally observed throughout the monitoring period, from 2011 to 2014. This study demonstrates that the combined system of MD and parasitoids is an effective and reliable technique that can be used to successfully control <em>P. interpunctella</em>.</p> Pasquale Trematerra Sara Savoldelli Matthias Schöller ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 447 454 10.5073/jka.2018.463.099 Host-age preference of <i>Theocolax elegans</i> (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a larval parasitoid of the lesser grain borer, <i>Rhyzopertha dominica</i> (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and the cowpea weevil, <i>Callosobruchus maculatus</i https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10713 <p>The pteromalids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) <em>Anisopteromalus calandrae</em> (Howard), <em>Dinarmus basalis</em> (Rondani), <em>Lariophagus distinguendus</em> (Förster), <em>Pteromalus cerealellae</em> (Ashmead) and <em>Theocolax elegans</em> (Westwood) are solitary larval ectoparasitoids used to suppress several species of stored-product insects that infest storage grains. We investigated host-age preference of <em>T. elegans</em> using no-choice laboratory experiments. Lesser grain borer, <em>Rhyzopertha dominica</em> (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) larvae (9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21 and 23 days-old) in wheat grain kernel and cowpea weevil, <em>Callosobruchus maculatus</em> (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae (5–19 days-old) in cowpea beans were exposed to neonate <em>T. elegans</em> mated females to lay their eggs for two days. Our results showed that the highest number of parasitoids emerged from 23 days-old <em>R. dominica</em> larvae. The numbers of parasitoids emerged from 19, 21 and 23 days-old <em>R. dominica</em> larvae were statistically significantly different in experiments (F-test, 0.05). Progeny of <em>T. elegans</em> reared from <em>R. dominica</em> and <em>C. maculatus</em> larvae were either fully-winged (macropterous), short-winged (brachypterous) or wingless (apterous). Female <em>T. elegans</em> were rarely host-feeding on <em>C. maculatus</em> larvae. Theocolax elegans progeny were emerging from 14 days-old <em>C. maculatus</em> larvae only. We discussed insectary mass production of <em>T. elegans</em> for biological control.</p> Saruta Sitthichaiyakul Rungsima Kengkanpanich Pavinee Noochanapal Weerawan Amornsak ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 454 458 10.5073/jka.2018.463.100 Phytochemical-based nano emulsions for stored grain protection https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10714 <p>Stored grain losses caused by pest insects contribute significantly to the global food crisis. Currently, there are two main chemical control methods against stored product insect pests: fumigation with very toxic gases and grain protection by residual contact insecticides. Today, the global tendency is to prevent/reduce the wide use of insecticides, which have high toxicity to humans and harm the environment. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop alternative eco-friendly approaches for stored insect pest control. <br>Essential oils from Micromeria fruticosa and Mentha rotundifolia (Fam. Labiatae) and their main constituent pulegone which previously were shown by us as very active against stored product insect pests, were encapsulated into coarse and nano emulsions. The insecticidal activity of the developed formulations against primary internal insect rice weevil (<em>Sitophilus oryzae</em> L.) and secondary external pest red flour beetle (<em>Tribolium castaneum</em> Herbst) was evaluated in laboratory and pilot experiments. <br>It was found that the phytochemical-based nano emulsions offered significant advantages and provided powerful and prolonged biological activity compare with the coarse formulations. The developed nano emulsions could serve as a natural, effective, low-toxify for human, and environmentally preferred method for protection stored grain and dry food products from pest insects.</p> Moshe Kostyukovsky Elazar Quinn Gilad Golden Aviv Rapaport Eli Shaaya Elena Poverenov ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 458 462 10.5073/jka.2018.463.101 Anti-termitic properties of Jatropha (<i>Jatropha curcas</i> L.) on wood termites (<i>Macrotermes bellicosus</i> (Smeathman) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10715 <p>The efficacy of <em>Jatropha curcas</em> in the management of wood termites, (<em>Macrotermes bellicosus</em>) was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Forestry and Wildlife Resources Management. University of Calabar. The experiment consisted of 5 levels of J. curcas oil (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) and a corresponding quantity in powder, replicated 4 times and arranged in Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD). Each concentration was tested on 20 unsexed adult wood termite placed in grave yard of 8cm x 8cm. Data on mortality rate was taken at 12 hourly up to 72 hours. The result from the experiment showed that <em>J. curcas</em> oil was significantly efficacious compared with <em>J. curcas</em> powder both in the field and in the laboratory. It was observed that there was progressive increase in mortality rate due to increased concentration and time duration. The management of termite using J. curcas should be encouraged due to its environmental friendliness and should also be incorporated into integrated pest management (IPM).</p> Okweche Simon Idoko Nnah Comfort Gordon ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 462 470 10.5073/jka.2018.463.102 The use of essential oils for the control of <i>Callosobruchus subinnotatus</i> (Pic) in stored <i>Vigna subterranea</i> L. https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10716 <p>Studies were conducted in the Crop Science laboratory, University of Calabar to evaluate the insecticidal actions of essential oils (EOs) of <em>Xylopia aethiopica, Dennetia tripetala, Pysostigma venenosum</em> and <em>Senna hirsuta</em> in the management of <em>Callosobruchus subinnotatus</em>. The EOs were extracted using soxhlet apparatus with n-Hexane as the solvent. Four concentrations (0.25%, 0.50%, 1.00% and 2.00 %) and n-Hexane as control were laid out in completely randomized design with three replications. Parameters assessed included repellency, fumigant action, weight loss as well as Lethal concentration (LC<sub>50</sub>) of the treatments to the beetles at the lowest concentration of 0.25%. The EO of <em>Senna hirsuta</em> treated samples generally resulted in significantly (P &gt; 0.05) lower weight loss than n-hexane treated samples. LC<sub>50</sub> computation revealed that <em>D. tripetala</em> and <em>P. venenosum</em> (LC50 0.22 at 48 hrs) were most efficacious against <em>C. subinnotatus</em>. The result supports the use of the test plants by small scale farmers in the protection of stored <em>V. substerranea</em> against <em>C. subinn</em></p> Sylvia BasseyUmoetok Boniface Effiong Archibong Simon Idoko Okweche ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 470 478 10.5073/jka.2018.463.103 Influence of abiotic factors on the efficacy of insect growth regulators against <i>Trogoderma granarium</i> (Everts)(Coleoptera: Dermestidae) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10717 <p>Present study was designed to investigate the effects of different combinations of three temperatures (20, 25 and 30?) and three relative humidity levels (55, 65 and 75%) on the efficacy of three synthetic IGRs i.e., pyriproxyfen, lufenuron and buprofezin at concentrations of 1, 5 and 10ppm on fecundity and adult emergence inhibition of <em>T. granarium</em> under controlled laboratory conditions. This study was conducted at Grain Research Training and Storage management Cell, Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. All the treatments were replicated three times using Completely Randomized Design. Larvae of <em>T. granarium </em>were exposed to IGRs at different levels of temperature and relative humidity. F<sub>1</sub> adult emergence results showed that at temperature 20°C, the highest percent reduction in adult emergence (84.38, 70.65 and 79.94%) was recorded after exposure to lufenuron, buprofezin and pyriproxyfen treated diet, respectively. At 75% relative humidity, lufenuron, buprofezin and pyriproxyfen caused 77.53, 80.00 and 80.32% reduction in adult emergence, respectively. Adults were exposed to IGRs at different temperature and relative humidity to evaluate the oviposition inhibition. The results revealed that at temperature 20°C, maximum percent reduction in fecundity (87.95, 80.45 and 70.55%) was recorded after exposure to buprofezin, pyriproxyfen and lufenuron treated diet, respectively. At 75% relative humidity buprofezin, pyriproxyfen and lufenuron caused 86.73, 83.72 and 69.11% reduction in fecundity, respectively. It is concluded that temperature and relative humidity play an important role in the effectiveness of insect growth regulators.</p> Mansur ul Hasan Qurban Ali Habib ur Rehmann Hafiz Usman Shakir Shahzad Saleem Muhammad Faisal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-13 2018-11-13 463 478 485 10.5073/jka.2018.463.104 Efficacy of pheromones for managing of the Mediterranean flour moth, <i>Ephestia kuehniella</i> Zeller, in food and feed processing facilities https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10718 <p>In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the monitoring and control of Lepidoptera, by pheromones also used in mass-trapping, attracticide (lure and kill), mating-disruption, auto-confusion methods. In context of IPM "insectistasis" can be readily achieved by continual supervision of environments by traps in combination with a limited number of preventive and curative measures appropriately timed. In the present paper are reported some promising results offering efficient control of the Mediterranean flour moth, <em>Ephestia kuehniella</em> Zeller, populations in food and feed processing facilities based on pheromones and line up a number of remaining questions to be answered to improve the reliability and competitiveness of the methods used. These field researches show potential for successful pheromone-based suppression methods for Mediterranean flour moths in practical applications.</p> Pasquale Trematerra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 485 493 10.5073/jka.2018.463.105 Influence of low doses of gamma irradiation on cowpea beetle <i>Callosobruchus maculatus</i> (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10719 <p>Phytosanitary irradiation for food commodities has been widely accepted in recent years. Gamma irradiation has been used as a phytosanitary treatment against microbial diseases, insect infestation and food spoilage. The goal of the current study was to determine the lowest possible dose of gamma irradiation that will induce longterm sterility of insects through generations. The effect of four gamma irradiation doses examined were; 20,40, 50 and 70 Gy. Irradiated males were crossed with normal females. For the cowpea beetle <em>Callosobruchus maculatus</em>(F.), adult fecundity, hatchability, adult emergence, sterility% was investigated. 100% adult mortality was achieved by 70 Gy dose. Fecundity, hatchability, number of adults emerged, sterility% were significantly reduced when males exposed to 20, 40, and 50 Gy compared to the control. The effect of parental irradiated males exposed to 20 Gy on F<sub>2</sub> generation was also studied. Fecundity, hatchability, number of adult emerged, sterility% were significantly reduced in F<sub>2</sub> compared to F<sub>1</sub> and control progeny. Interestingly, for F<sub>1</sub> generation, the effect of gamma rays on adult emergence% exhibit a hermetic effect response although it was not significant. These results demonstrat that pulse irradiation relying on low-doses of gamma radiation induce inherited semi-sterility through generations and is a very promising phytosanitary food technology for postharvest treatments.</p> Shams Fawki Hatem A. M. Ibrahim Marah M. Abd El-Bar Mohamed A. Abdou Dalia M. Mahmoud El-Gohary E. El-Gohary ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 493 497 10.5073/jka.2018.463.106 Radio frequency heat treatment for controlling cigarette beetle in dried tobacco https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10720 <p>Tobacco (<em>Nicotiana tabacum</em> L.) is one of many agricultural commodities produced in Thailand. There are Virginia (flue-cured tobacco) and Burley (air-cured tobacco) typesand Cigarette beetle, <em>Lasioderma sericorne</em> F. is the most important insect pest that attacks dried tobacco. The efficacy of radio frequency (RF) heat treatment at 27.12 MHz was examined to control cigarette beetle on dried tobacco. Various growth stages of cigarette beetle were prepared within samples of dried tobacco and were exposed to RF at 55, 60, and 65 °C for 1, 2 and 3 minutes. The results showed that pupal and adult stages of cigarette beetle were the most tolerant stages to RF heat treatments. The RF treatment at 65 °C for 3 minutes is able to cause complete mortality of egg, larval, pupal and adult stages of cigarette beetle4.</p> Yaowaluk Chanbang Nadthawat Muenmanee ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 463 497 501 10.5073/jka.2018.463.107 Lethal effects and mechanism of infrared radiation on <i>Sitophilus zeamais</i> and <i>Tribolium castaneum</i> in rough rice https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10721 <p>The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of adult <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> and <em>Tribolium castaneum</em>, and the 21.1% dry base (d.b.) MC of rough rice by ATR-FTIR spectra, and determine the theoretical optimum infrared (IR) heating temperature of the tested samples. In laboratory experiments, a ceramic IR drying device was used to heat infested rough rice to research the mortality of <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> and <em>Tribolium castaneum</em>, the drying characteristics of rough rice, and milling quality. The theoretical calculation optimum temperature of IR heating was 300 °C according to the results of FTIR spectra. In addition, the effects of the different IR radiation intensities and heated rough rice temperatures on mortality of insects, moisture removal, and milling quality were determined in this text. A high insect mortality, heating rate and corresponding high moisture removal were achieved by using IR heating. After heating, tempering process significantly increased insect mortality when the heated tempered rice temperature was less than 55 °C, and improve moisture removal and milling quality of rough rice during nature air cooling. When the rice heated under the IR radiation intensity of 2780 W/m<sup>2</sup> for 110 s, the rice temperature reached 60.2° ± 0.5°C, 100% mortality of <em>S. zeamais</em> and <em>T. castaneum</em>, and 3.97 percentage points of moisture removal during the heating period after tempering and natural cooling. In addition, the high rice milling quality can be achieved after tempering treatment. Therefore, it can be concluded that the optimum conditions of simultaneous disinfestation and drying were 60 °C rice temperature under the IR radiation intensity of 2780 W/m<sup>2</sup>, followed by tempering and natural cooling.</p> Chao Ding Yongsheng Pei Tingting Tao Guofeng Yang Yan Wang Wei Yan Xiaolong Shao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 463 502 513 10.5073/jka.2018.463.108 Effect of passing <i>Beauveria bassiana</i> through alkane based media on the adult mortalities of <i>Rhyzopertha dominica</i> and <i>Sitophilus oryzae</i> https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10722 <p>Entomopathogenic fungi have been investigated for management of stored product pests as alternatives to chemical control. <em>Beauveria bassiana</em> is commonly considered and thus increasing its efficacy has also been studied. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of passing two <em>B. bassiana</em> cultures (wild and singlespore cultures) through n-hexadecane and n-octocasane based media on <em>Rhyzopertha dominica</em> and <em>Sitophilus oryzae</em> adult mortalities. For each Petri plate, 2 ml of 10% alkane was spread, let to evaporate and fungus was inoculated. After sporulation, spores for pathogenicity tests were produced by solid fermentation method on rice. Pathogenicity tests were conducted by application of 500 ppm (w/w) spores in wheat on 20 adults at 25±2oC, 65±5 r.h. in darkness with five replications. The efficacy of wild culture towards R. dominica adults was enhanced in both treatments. Mortality in 7 days increased from 35% to 55 and 69% when n-hexadecane and noctocasane were used, respectively. Similarly, these treatments increased 14-day mortalities from 65% to 77 and 87%, respectively. Treatment of single-spore culture, however, either showed no change or reduced mortality. Passing both cultures through both alkane based media did not statistically affect the activity against <em>S. oryzae</em>. This study illustrated that increasing the virulence of <em>B. bassiana</em> is possible for <em>R. dominica</em> and increase depends both on the starting fungus culture and alkane used. Starting with a wild fungus culture with a wider genetic diversity, and using n-octocasane can produce a better enhancement.</p> Mehmet Kubilay Er Cebrall Barış Hasan Tunaz Ali Arda Işikber ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 463 513 516 10.5073/jka.2018.463.109 Bio-nanosilver synthesized by the entomopathogenic nematode-symbiotic bacterium as bio-insecticide for the red flour beetle (<i>Tribolium castaneum</i>) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10723 <p>Biological control can be another important way to manage post-harvest insect pests. Some organisms that showed biological control activity against some soil pests are insect-parasitic nematodes. There are two different species of nematodes, steinernematids and heterorhabditids, who carry within their bodies insect-pathogenic bacteria. Xenorhabdus spp are bacteria which infest steinernematids and <em>Photorhabdus</em> spp. bacteria infect heterorhabditids. The study aimed to develop pesticide alternatives by synthesizing silver bio-nanoparticles (AgNPs) using <em>Xenorhabdus indica</em> bacterial filtrate. The nanoparticles synthesized by the bacterial strains were purified and its cytotoxicity and bioactivity was examined against the larvae of the <em>Tribolium castaneum</em>. AgNPs were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray diffraction analysis, and the results revealed that the obtained nanoparticles are nanosilver with sizes ranging from 30 to 70 nm, with spherical shape and nonsmoothed surface. Insect larvae were initially exposed to descending concentrations (100, 50, 25, 10 and 5 µg/ml) of the biosynthesized nanosilver for 48 hours. Results of the bioassay showed that mortality of treated larvae was concentration-dependent with LC<sub>50</sub> of 25 µg/ml. Higher mortality percentage (89%) was observed with the concentration 100 ug/ml and the lower one was obtained by the concentration 5 µg/ml (60%). Subsequently, data of the present study suggest these bio-AgNPs-bacterial filtrate complexes could be used as potentially effective eco-friend bio-control candidates. However, testing other types of bio-synthesized nanomaterials, and its vital effect as bio-insecticide for storage insect species are still under investigation.</p> Rehab Y. Ghareeb Hanan Elsadway ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 463 516 519 10.5073/jka.2018.463.110 Insecticidal effect of Central Anatolian Region diatomaceous earths against confused flour beetle (<i>Tribolium confusum</i> Du Val.) on stored paddy https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10724 <p>In this study, insecticidal efficacy of different local diatomaceous earth (DE) deposits obtained Central Anatolian Region in Turkey and commercial DE deposit (German origin), Silicosec® were evaluated against substantial pest on stored grain as <em>Tribolium confusum</em> du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) at five different concentrations of 100, 300, 500, 900 and 1500 ppm on stored paddy. Mortality of the exposed adults was assessed after 7, 14 and 21 days of exposure. Also progeny productions were assessed after 65 days The tests were carried out at 25±1 oC temperature, 55±5% R.H. under dark conditions. The most effective DE in a short time were assessed AG2N-1 which caused 97% mortality of <em>T. confusum</em> adults at 1500 ppm concentration after 7 days of exposure in paddy. Complete mortality of <em>T. confusum</em> adults was recorded on AG2N-1 at 900 ppm for 14 days and treatments of AG2N-1, BGN-1, CBN-1 for 21 days at 500, 900 and 1500 ppm respectively whereas 87% mortality rate was determined for 21 days exposure of Silicosec® at the highest concentrations on paddy. In conclusion, this study indicated that Turkish DE deposits, AG2N-1, BGN-1 and CBN-1 had high insecticidal efficacy in comparison with the commercial Silicosec® and would have potential to be used against insects in the pest management of stored paddy.</p> Baytekin Onder Saglam Ozgur Ali Arda Işikber ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 463 519 522 10.5073/jka.2018.463.111 Twelve years (2005-2017) of scientific and professional work in the field of stored products pests protection in Slovenia https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10725 <p>Scientific and professional work in the field of stored products pests protection in Slovenia began in 2005, when we tested the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against the granary weevil (<em>Sitophilus granarius</em>) and the sawtoothed grain beetle (<em>Oryzaephilus surinamensis</em>) adults under laboratory conditions. In 2007, we participated as partners in the project SEE-ERA.NET “Development of a non-toxic, ecologically compatible, natural-resource based insecticide from diatomaceous earth deposits of South Eastern Europe to control storedgrain insects pests” (coordinated by C. Athanassiou), and we thus became acquainted with the research work in the field of investigation the efficacy of diatomaceous earth in controlling beetles from the <em>Sitophilus</em> genus. We have continued the research of different aspects of diatomaceous earth (the influence of geochemical composition and abiotic factors on its efficiency, the effects of individual and combined application, the effects on various harmful insect pests, etc.). In search for comparable substances to diatomaceous earth (regarding the efficacy), we have studied insecticidal effects of quartz sand and entomopathogenic nematodes from Slovenia, plant powders and essential oils on various harmful beetles. In the recent years, our research work has been mainly dedicated to studying the efficacy of wood ash and zeolites as natural insecticides, which have demonstrated sufficient efficiency in suppressing <em>Sitophilus</em> beetles. In the same period, we studied the seasonal dynamics of the Indian mealmoth (<em>Plodia interpunctella</em>), the Mediterranean flour moth (<em>Ephestia kuehniella</em>) and the Angoumois grain moth (<em>Sitotroga cerealella</em>) in cereal stores, where we were also searching for possible indigenious natural enemies of stored product insects pests. We have confirmed the occurrence of two parasitoids, <em>Anisopteromalus calandrae</em> and <em>Dibrachys microgastri</em>. In 2017, we have organized the 11th Conference of the IOBC/wprs Working Group on Integrated Protection of Stored Products (Ljubljana, 3-5 July), which was attended by 136 participants from 25 countries. We also transfer knowledge to Slovenian agricultural specialists about the harmfulness and possible ways of controlling stored products insects pests. In 2014, we have organized a workshop on this topic (“From Technological Maturity to Storing of Cereals and Legumes“). In 2015, we have hosted C. Athanassiou as an invited lecturer at the 12th Slovenian Conference on Plant Protection with international participation in Ptuj. In recent years, we have been working with experts from other countries with the aim of studying the efficacy of environmentally acceptable insecticides (spinosad, spinetoram) and the influence of cereal production technologies on grains’ susceptibility to attack by <em>Sitophilus</em> beetles. Furthermore, we participate in the research regarding the efficiency of new formulations of insecticidal preparations. The paper presents the chronology of activities in this area of our work.</p> Stanislav Trdan Tanja Bohinc ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 463 522 532 10.5073/jka.2018.463.112 Investigations on the efficacy of Turkish diatomaceous earth comparing with SilicoSec? against the stored grain pests https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10726 Haleh Mortazavi Ahmed Guray Ferizil ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 463 532 533 10.5073/jka.2018.463.113 The effectiveness of SilicoSec, diatomaceous earth against the lesser grain borer, <i>Rhyzopertha dominica</i> (L) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10727 Sevilay Altintop Mevlut Emekci Ahmet Guray Ferizil ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 463 533 533 10.5073/jka.2018.463.114 Host-preference and parasitic capacity of five <i>Trichogramma</i> species (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae) against some stored product moth pests https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10728 Esmat Hegazi Cornel Adler Wedad Khafagi Essam Agamy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 463 533 534 10.5073/jka.2018.463.115 Monitoring of the Indian meal moth and its parasitoids in long-term grain storage https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10729 <p>The Indian meal moth <em>Plodia interpunctella</em> became a major pest in bulk grain storage in Germany in recent years. Monitoring with adhesive pheromone-baited traps revealed a dependence of the number of generations of the moth from the temperature conditions in store, which themselves depend on insulation of the storage structure. The larval parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor was monitored with the help of cone traps placed in the grain. Baiting these traps with moth webbings significantly increased the number of female wasps trapped in 5 cm depth in wheat. Field trials showed both the pest and the beneficial can be monitored in stores, but more research is needed to develop a biological control strategy for<em> P. interpunctella</em>.</p> Matthias Schöller Bernd Wührer Sabine Prozell ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 463 534 537 10.5073/jka.2018.463.116 A preliminary study of growth and development of <i>Cheyletus malaccensis</i> (Oudemans) under different humidity conditions https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10730 <p><em>Cheyletus malaccensis</em> (Oudemans) is a species of predatory mite, which is widely distributed in grain storage, and is a potential natural enemy of stored-product pests. Based on the typical temperatures and humidities that occur in granaries, the growth and development of <em>C. malaccensis</em> was studied at 24°C with different relative humidities (RH 65±2%, 75±2%, 85±2% and 95±2%). During this study, <em>C. malaccensis</em> was fed on <em>Acarus siro</em> (Linnaeus), a very important stored grain pest to investigate its potential to control this pest and production of this natural enemy in the laboratory. The results showed that <em>C. malaccensis</em> has five developmental stages, egg, larva, protonymph, deutonymph and adult. The deutonymph stage is absent in males. For females, the developmental time from egg to adult was shortest at 85±2 % RH and averaged 16.3 days; developmental time was longest at 65±2 % RH and averaged 18.6 days. The male mites in the 95±2% RH trials had the shortest developmental time which averaged 12.6 days; it was longest at 65±2% RH where it averaged 14.7 days. At 95±2% RH, the male adult lived 83.5 d and its longevity from egg to adult was 95.8 d. Humidity had a significant effect on how long the adults lived and the duration of all developmental stages. At 85±2 % RH, the maximum average number of eggs per female, oviposition period and daily fecundity were 493.0, 46.2 d, and 10.3, respectively. This study provides basic biological parameters for <em>C. malaccensis</em>, a potential biological control agent for mite pests infesting stored grain.</p> Lu Liu Yang Cao Peihuan He WeiWei Sun Qing Yu Yi Wu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 463 537 540 10.5073/jka.2018.463.117 Evaluation of the potential value of the F<sub>1</sub>H and F<sub>2</sub>H Diatomaceous earth formulations as grain protectants against <i>Rhyzopertha dominica</i> (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10731 <p>An insecticidal efficacy of two newly developed grain protectant formulations were assessed against lesser grain borer <em>Rhyzopertha dominica</em> (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) on wheat and corn after 6 months period of. Tested formulations, marked as F<sub>1</sub>H and F<sub>2</sub>H, based on inert dust, laurel leaves, lavender essential oil, corn oil, silica gel (both F<sub>1</sub>H and F<sub>2</sub>H) and pyrethrin (only F<sub>2</sub>H) were tested at six doses (from 100 ppm to 600 ppm) depending on formulation and type of grain. The appropriate weights of each formulation, were added seperately to plastic containers containing 10 kg of wheat or corn. An initial population of 200 adults of R. dominica were added into each container and left under natural environmental conditions for up to 6 months. A commercial diatomaceous earth (DE) insecticide, Celatom® Mn 51, was used for the comparison of the results, in addition to the untreated control. After six months, both formulations showed higher insecticidal effect than DE Mn 51 in corn and in wheat. Furthermore, the initial population of <em>R. dominica</em>, introduced in wheat was suppressed almost completely, with only 0.7%-5.3% live adults found, depending on formulations and dose. The order of efficacy was F<sub>1</sub>H&gt;F<sub>2</sub>H&gt;DE Mn 51. Similar suppression of the initial population was recorded in corn, where F<sub>2</sub>H was slightly more effective than F<sub>1</sub>H with 2.0%-10.6% and 4.1%-9.5% live adults found, respectively. At the same time, in the treatments with DE Mn 51 there were 4.7%-74.7% and 33.4%-56.1% live adults in wheat and corn, respectively.</p> Anita Liška Zlatko Korunic Vlatka Rozman Pavo Lucić Renata Baličević Josip Halamić Ines Galović ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 463 540 546 10.5073/jka.2018.463.118 Olfactory host location and host preference of <i>Holepyris sylvanidis</i> (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and <i>Cephalonomia waterstoni</i> (Bethylidae), two natural enemies of <i>Tribolium</i> and <i>Cryptolestes</i> species https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10732 <p>Parasitoids can suppress populations of their host and thus play a primary role in Integrated Pest Management. In the stored product environment, stimuli deriving from plant products, damaged plant products and hosts might be important for host location by the parasitoids. We studied foraging cues in <em>Holepyris sylvanidis</em> (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a larval parasitoid of <em>Tribolium</em> species and <em>Cephalonomia waterstoni</em> (Bethylidae), a natural enemy of the rusty grain beetle <em>Cryptolestes ferrugineus</em> (Coleoptera: Cucujidae). Our studies in a fourchamber olfactometer revealed that the host complexes of both Tribolium species and different living host stages attract naive <em>H. sylvanidis</em> females, whereas no reaction was observed to uninfested substrates. The olfactory response of <em>C. waterstoni</em> was found to be strongly elicited both by chemicals emitted by the dust, adult <em>C. ferrugineus</em> and C. <em>ferrugineus</em> third and fourth instar larvae. Our findings may contribute to the development of biological control strategies of <em>T. castaneum, T. confusum</em> and <em>C. ferrugineus</em> with parasitoids.</p> Marco Amante Agatino Russo Matthias Schöller Johannes L.M. Steidle ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 463 546 548 10.5073/jka.2018.463.119 Julius-Kühn-Archiv 463 Volume II https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10734 - - ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 549 1130 The significance of vapor pressure in quality preservation of stored commodities under gastight conditions https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10736 <p>While investigating the preservation of the aroma of various spices we compared the effects of hermetic conditions, vacuum and carbon dioxide versus aerated storage. The quality of the tested spices stored under hermetic conditions was comparable to those stored in vacuum after 120 d of storage. At a given temperature, a substance with higher vapor pressure vaporizes more readily than a substance with a lower vapor pressure. Throughout the investigation on specialty coffee, the volatility was evaluated as particularly important because coffee taste and aroma are influenced by compounds that are volatile. We hypothesize that hermetic storage reduces the rate of the volatiles to spread to the atmosphere. Dry food commodities can be stored for extended periods, provided there is no insect infestation and their water activity is low enough to prevent microbial growth. However, in aerated storages quantitative and qualitative losses still occur. If the moisture content is maintained sufficiently low, insects and quality loss remain the main concern for the quality preservation of durable agricultural commodities. Although in hermetic storage, the major emphasis is placed on the control of insect pests, for quality preservation just maintaining the vapor pressure in the sealed structure is sufficient. Quality preservation under hermetic conditions remains an aspect that deserves more attention. This characteristic of hermetic storage is the tendency to maintain within the hermetic structure the substances that have the ability to vaporize.</p> Shlomo Navarro Hagit Navarro ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 549 556 10.5073/jka.2018.463.120 Hermetic storage technology for handling of dry agricultural commodities: Practice, challenges, opportunities, research, and prospects in Zimbabwe https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10737 <p>Storage pest management practices have relied on synthetic pesticides comprising: dust powders, liquid formulations and fumigants. Reduced efficacy against targeted species, negative health-related issues and increase in consumer awareness on potentially detrimental effects of synthetic pesticides have led to a shift towards safer and environmentally-benign alternatives. Hermetic technology is a pesticide-free storage alternative currently being used in Zimbabwe and other African countries. In the current paper, we review forms and characteristics of the hermetic technology available, organisations driving the technology, research and development (R&amp;D) initiatives, and access and uptake trends in the country. The review draws out future prospects in terms of: stakeholder partnerships and roles, up-scaling/adoption options, R&amp;D gaps, capacity building, and funding mechanisms for effective and sustainable uptake. Critical areas identified in the review include: the need for increasing the number of hermetic plastic liner brands available to enhance access and competitive pricing, improved distribution mechanisms for hermetic storage containers for easy access in remote areas, and generation of evidence-based efficacy data on the various hermetic storage containers in preserving quality of commercial, parent and foundation seed. Future opportunities include use of hermetic containers in the disinfestation of organic horticultural products using carbon dioxide gas hermetic fumigation. However, supporting policies are necessary to ensure sustainable adoption of the hermetic technology at subsistence and commercial scales.</p> Brighton M. Mvumi Alex A. Chigoverah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 556 563 10.5073/jka.2018.463.121 Evaluation of hermetic technologies in the control of insect infestation and mycotoxin contamination in stored maize grains https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10738 <p>Grain losses due to moulds during on-farm storage increase food insecurity, result in economic losses, negatively affect farmers’ livelihoods, and increase exposure to mycotoxins that can harm human and animal health. Hermetic storage technologies provide a reliable solution for maize grain that may also preserve food safety. Several studies report the effectiveness of these technologies against post-harvest insects in Africa but provide limited evidence on effectiveness against mould proliferation and mycotoxin contamination. Hermetic technologies were superior to farmer practice in reducing insect infestations and mycotoxin accumulation. Among hermetic technologies, there were no significant differences (P&gt;0.05) in performance between metal silos and hermetic bags for mycotoxin accumulation and insect infestation regardless of the mode of infestation. In non-inoculated grain, fungal populations were varied but included mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus and Fusarium spp., indicating that the grain was naturally contaminated and acted as a good reservoir for these fungi. Mycotoxin levels increased with higher moisture even in non-inoculated grain. Meanwhile, aflatoxin and fumonisin levels at 4 months were not significantly different from baseline values in dry inoculated grain across all storage technologies (P&gt;0.05), indicating that hermetic technologies can prevent mycotoxin contamination in dry grain for at least 4 months of storage. Aflatoxin and fumonisin were significantly higher by 1.69 ppb and 0.25 ppm respectively in non-inoculated grains at high moisture indicating the need to adequately dry grain before storage in hermetic technologies. This trend was observed collectively in all the technologies registering 2.03 ppb and 0.311 ppm respectively. In inoculated grains at high moisture, there was an increase in aflatoxin in both hermetic treatments and the control by 5.7 ppb and 12.14 ppb respectively. Therefore, a trial was conducted to compare hermetic technologies with farmer practice in their effectiveness against both insect infestation and mycotoxin contamination.</p> Jacqueline Namusalisi Catherine N. Kunyanga Anani Bruce Hugo De Groote ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 563 569 10.5073/jka.2018.463.122 Postharvest treatment research at USDA-ARS: stored product fumigation https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10739 <p>The overall goal of this USDA-ARS research is to ensure the protection and quality of stored product foodstuffs. The results of this research directly enhance production, distribution, and safety of foodstuffs, promote and retain access of United States-grown crops to domestic and foreign markets, and protect the United States and trading partners from the agricultural, ecological and economic threat posed by quarantine and invasive pests. In general, USDA-ARS research related to the fumigation of stored products focuses on the development of techniques to rapidly disinfest raw products of field pests, control pests in processed products amenable to reinfestation and microbial infection, and reduce reliance on fumigation as a stand-alone measure for postharvest disinfestations and disinfections. Specific research objectives include: comparative evaluation of alternative fumigants to methyl bromide in postharvest applications, development of novel technologies to reduce and eliminate atmospheric emissions from chambers used in postharvest fumigation, and design production strategies that allow for a more strategic postharvest use of methyl bromide and alternative fumigants. Recent research findings will be presented and discussed, including: exposure requirements of phosphine on key stored product pests (as related to resistance management), the establishment of efficacy and experimental criterion for quarantine applications, and the development of models to quantitatively understand the underpinnings of fumigations and related phytosanitary treatments.</p> Spencer S. Walse Matthew Rodriguez John S. Tebbets ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 569 576 10.5073/jka.2018.463.123 Quantifying grain storage structure leakage by testing effects of environmental conditions on pressure loss https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10740 <p>A major concern in grain storage and management facilities is the effective control of insects and pests that reside in stored grain. Currently, the best studied method of subduing these insects is fumigating the grain bins with phosphine. However, many grain storage insects have developed a resistance to phosphine due to its misuse over the years, partially due to bin leakage, leading to minimum pest control in grain and increased product damage. The first step in managing the issue of fumigant leakage is by identifying environmental conditions that may impact the bins’ total air loss, and ultimately, fumigant loss. One way to quantify the leakage potential of a structure is to perform pressure tests. Data collected from these tests statistically quantify the significance of atmospheric conditions on bin leakage, as well as quantify leakage area in the bin. These tests were performed on a 500 bushel grain bin filled with canola seed, sealed with plastic sheeting and Gorilla duct tape. A PVC pipe “arm” and shop vacuum (Shop-Vac<sup>®</sup> 5-gallon 6-Peak HP) contraption was designed for pressure application. Constant pressure testing methods were performed to collect data for calculations of leakage area. Tests were repeated in varying environmental conditions. Data analysis included performing single sample ttests to determine significance of environmental conditions, as well as using previously established relationships to quantify predicted leakage area in each scenario. It was concluded that atmospheric conditions significantly affect gas leakage from structures (p &lt; 0.001), so pressure test conditions should match fumigation conditions for an accurate initial fumigant dosage. Constant pressure tests accurately predict equivalent leakage area of bin, with areas demonstrating a variance of 3.4 x 1<sup>0-5</sup>. Future tests to improve fumigating processes could include relationships between phosphine concentration and the leakiness of the bin, as well as automated constant pressure testing devices.</p> Carol Jones Taylor Conley ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 577 582 10.5073/jka.2018.463.124 Three and half decades of research on controlled atmosphere storage of grains under nitrogen and recent utilization of the technology in Nigeria https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10741 <p>A major breakthrough of Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI) is in the development of Inert Atmosphere Metal Silo (IAMS) in bulk grain storage for suitability of the climate, adoption and utilization in Nigeria. This technology uses nitrogen gas to achieve a controlled atmosphere (N2-CA) or environment for the control of stored products pests infestation and damage. Achieved 100% mortality of all life adults and immature stages of stored products insect pests; inhibited mould growth, maintained biochemical composition of stored grain and germinability (85% -91%) recorded at 12 months of storage. The system has been used to effectively store white maize, groundnut, Ife brown cowpea, wheat, paddy rice and yellow sorghum for periods of 12 – 48 months. The only system that has ability to store cowpea which cannot be stored in conventional silos. Research activities commenced from laboratory trials to pilot scale and later to medium and commercial levels. Shading the IAMS top against direct sun effect with palm fronds or hood for insulation prevented moisture migration and condensation, and maintained temperature below 30 oC in stored grain. A return per unit on investment of 0.44 was recorded when utilized for storage of wheat for a period of 48 months. IAMS has economic advantages over conventional silos which require frequency of pesticides application, turning of grains to prevent caking, food poisoning and high cost of labour. The recent utilization of this technology is due to increased awareness and demands for availability of grains for food safety, quality and nutrition. IAMS is being taken up by some entrepreneurs, marketers and Landmark University, Omu-Aru, Kwara state for grain storage in Nigeria. This technology is available for use at smallholder, medium, commercial and strategic grain reserve levels. Three and half decades of application of IAMS technology in grain storage in Nigeria is discussed.</p> Egobude Okonkwo Michael Omodara Shuaib Oyewole Adaora Osegbo Patricia Pessu Adeola Oyebanji Olufemi Peters ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 582 591 10.5073/jka.2018.463.125 Toxic effects of ozone on selected stored product insects and germ quality of germinating seeds https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10742 <p>The merchant grain beetle (MGB), <em>Oryzaephilus mercator</em> (Fauvel), the cigarette beetle (CB) <em>Lasioderma serricorne</em> (F.) and the rice weevil, <em>Sitophilus oryzae</em> (L.) cause significant damage to stored grain, grain-based products, and other durable commodities. Ozone, a highly oxidative toxic gas, has the potent to kill insects, meantime degrades rapidly to oxygen, making it a potential alternative to phosphine, a fumigant to which insects are developing resistance. The adults of MGB and CB were exposed to ozone concentrations of 100 - 400 ppm at 50 ppm increments for one hour and at 100 ppm for 1-6 h. Adults of rice weevil buried at 5, 15 or 25 cm depths within a wheat mass placed in 10 cm diameter 30 cm high PVC pipes were exposed to ozone concentration of 200 ppm for six hours and then at 12-h increments up to 60 h. Adult survival was recorded at 0, 24, and 48 h post-treatment. Significantly fewer MGB or CB adults survived when exposed to higher ozone concentrations or when exposed to ozone in the absence of food. RW adult mortality at 5 cm depth were significantly higher than that of 15 or 25 cm depths. This paper further discusses about mortality of MGB, CB and RW adults at different exposure periods at various ozone concentrations and effect of ozone on wheat germination.</p> Rizana Mahroof Barbara Amoah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 591 595 10.5073/jka.2018.463.126 Update on ProFume<sup>®</sup> gas fumigant (sulfuryl fluoride) use for post-harvest pest control https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10743 Barbara Nead-Nylander Ellen Thoms ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 595 596 10.5073/jka.2018.463.127 Nitric oxide as a new fumigant for postharvest pest control https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10744 <p>Nitric oxide (NO) is a new fumigant for postharvest pest control. It is effective against all pests tested to date, including external and internal pests of fresh and stored product insects, and mites. Efficacious treatment time ranges from 2 h to 72 h, and NO concentrations range from 0.1% to 5%, depending on species and life stages of the pests. <br>Nitric oxide fumigation must be conducted under ultralow oxygen conditions because NO reacts with O<sub>2</sub> spontaneously to produce nitrogen dioxide (NO<sub>2</sub>), which is toxic to perishable fresh products. Fresh product fumigation must, therefore, also be terminated by flushing with N<sub>2</sub> to dilute NO at the end of fumigation to avoid damage to delicate products by NO<sub>2</sub>. Nitric oxide fumigation was safe in small-scale tests to postharvest quality of all fresh commodities when terminated with N<sub>2</sub> flush. In addition, NO fumigation resulted in better postharvest quality of strawberries and apples as compared with controls, indicating its beneficial effects on postharvest quality of fresh products. <br>Twenty fresh fruit and vegetables and 10 stored products were fumigated with NO to determine residue levels of nitrate and nitrite. When terminated properly with N<sub>2</sub> flush, NO fumigation does not increase nitrate or nitrite levels in fumigated products. NO fumigation was demonstrated to be effective against all pests, safe to fresh products, and has no toxic residues and, therefore, has the potential to be a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for postharvest pest control on both fresh and stored products.</p> Yong-Biao Liu Xianbing Yang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 596 604 10.5073/jka.2018.463.128 Bluefume (HCN) and EDN<sup>®</sup> as fumigation alternatives to methy bromide for control of primary stored product pests https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10745 <p>The presented paper provides preliminary results on the fumigation potential of two preparations: Bluefume (HCN - hydrogen cyanide) and EDN<sup>®</sup>. (Ethane-dinitrile). Their biological efficacy was tested on Granary weevil (<em>Sitophilus granarius</em>; Curculionidae; Coleoptera) as a primary stored product pest in the Czech Republic. In fumigation chamber, we tested temporal survival of various S. granarius strains following exposure of a dose of 9 g.m<sup>-3</sup> HCN (Bluefume). We compared differential sensitivity of one laboratory (i.e. sensitive) CRI-strain and 9 field strains collected from the Czech stores and mills. The HCN Ct products required to kill the tested S. granarius strains ranged from CTp= 30.5 g.m-3.h<sup>-1</sup> to CTp= 51.7 g.m3.h<sup>-1</sup>. The efficacy of EDN (30 g.m<sup>-3</sup>) on various developmental stages <em>S. granarius</em> was tested in a fumigation chamber. No live individual of <em>S. granarius</em> belonging to any life stage was recorded following 18 hours of EDN exposure.</p> Vaclav Stejskal Radek Aulicky Adam Jonas Jonas Hnatek Jarmila Malkova ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 604 608 10.5073/jka.2018.463.129 Improved analysis of propylene oxide, propylene chlorohydrin and propylene bromohydrin https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10746 <p>The benefits and deficiencies of several methods of analysis for PPO and PXH, including the aqueous extraction used in ASTA method 23.1 and the MTBE extraction method previously reported by the authors, will be discussed. Novel methods utilizing dynamic headspace extraction and solid phase microextraction (SPME) will also be reported with particular emphasis on preventing artefactual effects. Preliminary experiments have found that dynamic headspace sampling can lower detection limits by up to 3 orders of magnitude.</p> Wiley A. Hall Spencer S. Walse Leonel Jimenez ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 608 610 10.5073/jka.2018.463.130 Monitoring of post-harvest fumigation with Gasmet Multikomponent FTIR gas detection systems https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10747 Frank Arnold ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 610 611 10.5073/jka.2018.463.131 Determination of safe storage moisture content of commercial maize (Zea mays) seeds during hermetic storage https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10748 <p>Germination declines during storage and meeting official standards (90% limit) can be challenging for the seed industry. Hermetic storage, through the establishment of self-modified atmospheres has shown to preserve germination in high-moisture maize seeds, but in the range of the low-moisture contents (m.c.) used by the seed industry, the relationship between hermetic storage and seed quality has not been fully studied. The aim of this work was to determine the safe storage m.c. of commercial maize seeds during hermetic storage considering both germination and microbiological aspects. Maize seeds with 95% initial germination were conditioned to m.c.s. between 11.5 and 14.5% and stored hermetically at 25ºC for 6 months. Germination, % oxygen, % infected grains, and colony forming units (CFU) were evaluated. Germination declined with increasing m.c.s, dropping to 50% at 14.5% m.c. Microflora respiration started to be detected at 13.5% m.c. and an anaerobic self-modified atmosphere was reached at 14.5% m.c. Despite the higher relative humidity, % infected grains and CFU count at 14.5% m.c. were lower than at 13.5%, probably due to the suppressive effect of the anaerobic atmosphere. In conclusion, 11.5% was a safe storage m.c. as it preserved germination above marketing requirements without microbiological risk. Hermetic storage was useful to generate self-modified atmospheres for m.c.s above 13.5%, but these self-modified atmospheres were not effective to protect germination. Further research on the effects of controlled and self-modified atmospheres on the quality of different maize genotypes is needed to evaluate the benefit of hermetic storage of commercial seeds.</p> Bernadette Abadia Ricardo Bartosik ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 611 618 10.5073/jka.2018.463.132 Application of ECO<sub>2</sub>FUME<sup>®</sup> phosphine fumigant for the complete control of major stored product insect pests in milled rice in Thailand https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10749 <p>ECO<sub>2</sub>FUME<sup>®</sup> phosphine fumigant was used to fumigate milled rice in a commercial plastic bag (5 kg) and milled rice in a jumbo bag (1,000 kg) under gas-proof sheets to assess its performance against a mixed-age culture of <em>Sitophilus zeamais, Tribolium castaneum</em> and <em>Oryzaephilus surinamensis</em>. The trials were divided into 2 groups: <br>1) milled rice in a commercial plastic bag (packed rice) treated with a 50 g/m<sup>3</sup> ECO<sub>2</sub>FUME<sup>®</sup> application rate (700 ppm phosphine) for 2 days with two bag stacks of 46 m<sup>3</sup> and 55 m<sup>3</sup> and for 3 days with two bag stacks of 50 m<sup>3</sup> each; and <br>2) milled rice in a jumbo bag (raw material rice) with stack size of 314 m3 treated with a 35 g/m<sup>3</sup> ECO<sub>2</sub>FUME<sup>®</sup> application rate (500 ppm phosphine) for 3 days and a stack size of 435 m<sup>3</sup> treated with 50 g/m<sup>3</sup> ECO<sub>2</sub>FUME<sup>®</sup> application rate for 2 days. <br>Gas sampling lines were installed in the stack to measure the phosphine concentrations during the fumigation period. The results of the fumigation trials showed that mixed-age cultures of the three insect species in packed rice stacks were completely controlled at 2 and 3 days when applied with an ECO<sub>2</sub>FUME<sup>®</sup> application rate of 50 g/m<sup>3</sup>, whereas most insects in untreated control cages remained alive. ECO<sub>2</sub>FUME<sup>®</sup> was also 100% effective in raw material rice stacks with complete control of mixed-age cultures of the three insect species using 35 g/m<sup>3</sup> of ECO<sub>2</sub>FUME<sup>®</sup> for 3 days and 50 g/m<sup>3</sup> of ECO<sub>2</sub>FUME<sup>®</sup> for 2 days. Commercial tarp fumigation of milled rice with ECO<sub>2</sub>FUME<sup>®</sup> can be fumigated successfully without “top up” with good sealing procedures. Gas monitoring at regular intervals throughout the whole fumigation period is part of best fumigation practice to ensure that the minimum recommended phosphine concentration is maintained for complete control of all stages of target insect pests.</p> Rungsima Kengkanpanich Duangsamorn Suthisut Saruta Sitthichaiyakul ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 618 625 10.5073/jka.2018.463.133 Residual behaviour of phosphine in different commodities https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10750 <p>Phosphine is one of the most common active substances used in storage protection worldwide. As it is very efficient amongst a broad range of living organisms, it has become the favoured product after phasing out methyl bromide in 2010, as it can be used in many commodities. In 2005, the regulation 396/2005 was enacted and came into force in 2008. With this, the European commission started to evaluate residues arising from the use of a pesticide and to set maximum residue levels (MRLs) for safe and regulated food trade. To proof residue levels are below MRL and therefore far below concerning concentrations of phosphine in food or feed, residue studies are permanently conducted. In addition to support MRL settings, the intention of these trials is to determine withholding periods needed in storage protection, corresponding to PHI (pre harvest interval) for field and glasshouse treatments. Results of those studies show different levels and differences in decrease of residues after defined time periods. Thus, withholding periods for various commodities can differ. Residue trials with repeated exposure were conducted as well to determine possible additive effects.</p> Marie-Carolin Goetze Gehard Jakob ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 625 627 10.5073/jka.2018.463.134 Phosphine resistance status in lesser grain borer <i>Rhyzopertha dominica</i> (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) strains originating from the tropical countries https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10751 <p>Stored product beetles that are resistant to the fumigant phosphine (hydrogen phosphide) have been reported for more than 50 years in many places worldwide. The high levels of phosphine resistance in lesser grain borer <em>Rhyzopertha dominica</em> (F.) have been noted from several countries including Bangladesh. This study was designed to evaluate the status of resistance to phosphine in Bangladeshi <em>R. dominica</em> and to verify the possible comparison among other phosphine resistant strains from tropical countries viz. Burkina Faso and Malaysia. The data reported and summarized here showed varied levels of resistance compared to the laboratory phosphine susceptible strain (RDLAB). <em>Rhyzopertha dominica</em> strains originating from Bangladesh (RDBGD) and Burkina Faso (RDBKF) exhibited higher levels of resistance to phosphine compared to the Malaysian strains (RDMAL). Analysis of dose–response data indicated that the RDBGD and RDBKF strains were the most resistant to phosphine under different exposure periods. At LC<sub>50</sub>, these two strains were more than 80-fold more resistant at all exposures compared to the susceptible strain. Results also revealed that RDBGD and RDBKF strains required a relatively high concentration of 334.94 and 240.081 mg L<sup>-1</sup> for 99% mortality. The mean survival time (MST) for the phosphine resistant and susceptible also varied significantly. The maximum MST was recorded for RDBGD and RDBKF strains. The present findings further confirmed that the Bangladeshi originated <em>R. dominica</em> strain contained higher resistance to phosphine compared to strains from other countries. This study could be useful in developing management strategies to prevent stored grain from being infested by resistant strains of <em>R. dominica</em> in tropical countries.</p> Md Mahbub Hasan Cornel Adler Christoph Reichmuth Thomas W. Phillips ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 628 635 10.5073/jka.2018.463.135 Phosphine resistance in saw-toothed grain beetle, <i>Oryzaephilus surinamensis</i> (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) in the United States https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10752 <p>Sub-lethal dose application of phosphine (PH<sub>3</sub>) that is mostly caused by leakage during fumigation has resulted in resistance in Tribolium castaneum, <em>Rhyzopertha dominica, Cryptolestes ferrugineus</em>, <em>Sitophilus oryzae</em>, and other stored-product insect pest species worldwide. However, PH<sub>3</sub> resistance in the saw-toothed grain beetle, <em>Oryzaephilus surinamensis</em>, has not been reported in any country. Additionally, the discriminating dose of PH<sub>3</sub> for eggs of <em>O. surinamensis</em> has not been estimated. In this study, the discriminating dose for eggs of the susceptible strain of <sub>O. surinamensis</sub> was estimated as 28.4 ppm applied for 3 d. Adults from 4 out of 14 field-collected populations showed detectable resistance to PH<sub>3</sub> whereas eggs in 9 out of 14 populations had detectable resistance. Resistance frequencies in both adults and eggs in Box BF, Box BR and OKWat populations were &gt; 90%. Levels of resistance (LC<sub>99</sub>) in these three populations were estimated using probit analysis. LC99 values for adults of Box BF, Box BR, and OKWat populations were 320.5, 290.7 and 263 ppm, respectively, whereas those in eggs from the same populations were 1055.9, 1030.7, and 564.5 ppm, respectively, over 3-d fumigation. Resistance levels of adults and eggs of the most resistant population, Box BF, were 24.3- and 43.6-fold, respectively, higher than those of the lab-susceptible strain. The resistance levels in eggs from these three populations were &gt; 3-fold higher than that in adults and this shows eggs of <em>O. surinamensis</em> are more tolerant to PH<sub>3</sub> than adults. These results indicate that it may not be practical to use PH<sub>3</sub> to control Box BF and Box BR populations. Therefore, it is important to develop alternative pest management strategies for controlling highly PH<sub>3</sub>-resistant populations of stored-product insect pests.</p> Zhaorigetu Hubhachen George Opit Sandipa G. Gautam Charles Konemann Ed Hosoda ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 635 642 10.5073/jka.2018.463.136 Molecular mechanisms of metabolic resistance in booklice (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10753 Dan Dan Wei Ning Lang Tian Xing Jing Wie Dou Jin Jun Wang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 642 642 10.5073/jka.2018.463.137 “Remote sensing, predictable storage of agricultural commodities and advances in hermetic storage” https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10754 <p>Modified atmosphere hermetic storage, now used in over 115 countries for fumigant-free storage of dry commodities from coffee to rice and maize, has been available for almost three decades. This paper describes the progress in the field use of hermetic postharvest storage systems and of recent innovations in this technology which include the introduction of remote monitoring of temperature, humidity and O<sub>2</sub> or CO<sub>2</sub> levels in large, sealed hermetic containers. Also, introduced in 2018, is the Cocoon Lite™, a 2nd generation multi-tonne container with major improvements in the permeability, weight and cost of high performance, large hermetic storage systems. Early examples of the uses of these innovations and data obtained from their study is expected by year end. The GrainPro EcoWiSe™ is a remote sensing system that enables monitoring of temperature, moisture and oxygen/carbon dioxide levels, thus providing real-time data on the conditions of the stored commodity involved without manual intervention. One (or more) low-cost, remote, wireless sensors/transmitters placed inside sealed. Postharvest hermetic storage units can be read remotely on laptops or cellphones. Data collected and accumulated over time enables development of an “algorithm” for a stored commodity to define an alarm, where the user can be notified immediately of any unsafe humidity or oxygen storage conditions. A substantial advance in large hermetic storage containers known as Cocoons™ is the new Cocoon Lite, a 500:1 improvement in permeability to oxygen as well as a unit weight only 28% of existing Cocoons with the same capacity and a significantly lower cost. The paper also discusses prevention of the public health hazard of exponential growth of aflatoxin levels in conventional postharvest storage such as in rice, maize, and groundnuts; field data is provided on the control achieved through hermetic storage.</p> Philippe Villers Tom de Bruin Patrick Plijter ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 642 652 10.5073/jka.2018.463.138 Establishing the value of modern seed storage methods for wheat in diverse production ecologies in Nepal https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10755 <p>In the developing-country context of Nepal, farmers often incur in seed losses of 15-30% due to improper storage. To evaluate the efficacy and costs of modern storage alternatives, experimental trials were set up among ten farmers each in two contrasting ecologies, i.e. Palpa (hills) and Rupandehi (terai plains) districts of Nepal in 2013. Several wheat seed storage options were contrasted including farmer practices (FP) such as reused fertilizer bags, polythene bags, household metal containers, and mud bins. Modern storage methods that were evaluated included plastic bags (with and without pesticide), metal bins, and hermetic ‘SuperGrainbag’ (SGB). Seed quality and losses were assessed after six months of storage (May-October) with parameters such as grain moisture content, insect damage, seed germination, and seedling vigor. The overall quality of seed with FPs was lower in the hills than in the terai plains. Among the treatments, SGBs were more effective in maintaining acceptable seed moisture levels, controlling insect damage (&lt;1%), preserving germination (&gt;90% lab, &gt;65% field), and promoting seedling vigor. Metal bins and plastic bags without pesticide had higher insect damage (7- 15%) compared to FP and plastic bags with pesticide (2-5%). In terms of storage costs, SGBs were comparable with the farmers’ storage methods ($5-6 per 100 kg seed storage). Our findings demonstrate that SGBs are better at maintaining seed quality and more economical than not only FP but also the other modern storage methods evaluated in this study across different production ecological regions in Nepal.</p> Mina Devkota Krishna Devkota Andrew J. McDonald ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 652 660 10.5073/jka.2018.463.139 Hermetic storage - an ecofriendly safe storage method for long term storage of black gram https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10756 <p>India is the primary origin of the black gram that is majorly cultivated in the southern part of Asian countries. About 70% of world black gram production comes from India. Black gram is more prone to insect infestation and microorganisms resulting in deterioration of grain quality. These losses can be controlled by following appropriate storage method at farmer’s level. Eco-friendly, safe storage methods are demanded by the customers due to food safety, quality and environmental issues. Hermetic storage is a safe storage method, suitable for long term storage without usage of chemical pesticides. It creates an air tight environment to rapidly exterminate insect development and suppresses micro floral activity. A study was conducted to identify the suitable, cost effective storage method for safe storage of black gram at the farm level. Hermetic bags were made by using different combinations of gunny, polypropylene &amp; storezo bags for the safe storage of black gram. The properties of packaging materials viz., thickness, and water vapour transmission rate significantly affected the quality parameters of the black gram stored in various bags. Moisture content, thousand grain mass, bulk density, insect emergence, and germination percentage of black gram stored in various bags were studied over a storage period of 12 months. Black gram stored in polypropylene and gunny bags was infested with pulse beetle by the third month of the storage period. But black gram stored in bags with hermetic bag as inner layer was not infested up to 12 months and could retain the grain quality.</p> R. Meenatchi J.R.P.S. Alice P. Paulin Patricia J. A. Moses C. Anandharamakrishnan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 463 661 666 10.5073/jka.2018.463.140 Hermetic storage of dry soybean (Glycine max): creating an effective modified atmosphere using soaked grain as O<sub>2</sub> depletor https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10757 <p>Hermetic storage of grains and oilseed has been proposed as a solution for reducing food losses in developing countries. However, to obtain full benefit of the hermetic storage it is required to achieve a low O<sub>2</sub> concentration (below 2%) or high CO<sub>2</sub> concentration (above 20%). The gas concentration inside the hermetic container is the result of the balance between the respiration and gas exchange rates with the outside (permeability and leakage). When the grain is dry, an insufficient modification in the internal atmosphere is achieved (exchange rate higher than respiration rate), allowing insect development and, hence, grain losses. This study focuses in creating an effective modified atmosphere during the hermetic storage of dry soybean using soaked grain as O<sub>2</sub> depletor. Three big bags with internal polyethylene liners of 70 µm thickness were filled with 590 kg of soybean (Glycine max, with 12.5% m.c.) and sealed. Gas concentration evolution was measured during 15 days (basal condition). Later, four plastic perforated bottles filled with of 4.3 kg of soaked soybean (44% m.c.) were inserted in each bag. The bags were re-sealed and gas concentration was measured during 45 days. Results indicated that the soaked soybean acted as an O<sub>2</sub> depletor, reducing the gas concentration to 1% in only 8 days, and maintained below 1% during 45 days. This research indicated that a small portion of soaked grain (0.4% dry matter (d.m.)) can be used to generate an effective modified atmosphere to prevent biological activity in the entire grain mass. This is a simple and inexpensive approach to reduce food losses under low cost hermetic storage.</p> Hernán Taher Ricardo Bartosik ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-30 2018-10-30 463 666 671 10.5073/jka.2018.463.141 Biocidal efficacy of nitrogen (anoxic atmosphere) applied in operational condition to stored hazelnuts against pest insects at different stages of development. https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10758 <p>Recently, a test was conducted in Italy for the evaluation of the biocidal efficacy of Nitrogen saturation (anoxic conditions). One application was carried out in a controlled atmosphere cell of a logistic center specialized in receiving, storing and shipping foodstuffs. The cell, circa 3682 m3 volume, with capacity of 752 big bags of fresh shelled hazelnuts on 4 height levels was saturated with Nitrogen (99,9%) and maintained at 15-18°C for 21 days. Five test species of insects <em>Plodia interpunctella, Cadra cautella, Corcyra cephalonica, Tribolium confusum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis</em> were observed at different development stages (egg, larva, adult). The target species were sorted in special biotest and inserted in the big bags to simulate an infestation. At the end of the exposure period the biotests were collected and analyzed. The treatment resulted sufficient to achieve a total control on eggs of Lepidoptera test species only. This result confirmed and integrates the available information in literature that showed the need of a longer minimum exposure period for total control of common stored pest insects.</p> Francesca Lampugnani Guglielmo Cassani Luciane Süss Dario Zanoni Federico Ceriani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-30 2018-10-30 463 671 676 10.5073/jka.2018.463.142 Effect of modified atmosphere on larval and pupal stages of <i>Rhyzopertha dominica</i> in stored chickpeas https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10759 Rey David Iturralde García Francisco Javier Wong Corra Cristina Castañé Fernández Jordi Riudavets Muñoz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-30 2018-10-30 463 676 676 10.5073/jka.2018.463.143 CARVEX – pressurized pest disinfection with CARBO carbon dioxide https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10760 Oliver Kik Herbert Saal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-30 2018-10-30 463 677 680 10.5073/jka.2018.463.144 Fumigant toxicity of essential oils and their combinations on population buildup of three stored product coleoptera in stored wheat and effect on quality of wheat https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10761 <p>Experiments carried out to find the fumigant toxicity of three essential oils and their combinations from <em>Murraya koenigii, Citrus reticulata, Curcuma longa</em> on population buildup of <em>Sitophilus oryzae, Rhyzopertha dominica, Tribolium castaneum</em> in stored wheat at different days of infestation. The oil of <em>M. koenigii, C. reticulata</em> at 0.2% and <em>M. koenigii</em>+<em>C. reticulata, M. koenigii</em>+<em>C. longa</em> at 0.1% each were found highly effective against <em>S. oryzae</em> fumigated after 5, 10, 15 and 20 days. The oil of <em>M. koenigii</em> and <em>C. reticulata</em> at 0.2% <em>M. koenigii</em>+<em>C. reticulata, M. koenigii</em>+<em>C. longa, C. reticulata</em>+<em>C. longa</em> at 0.1% each and <em>M. koenigii</em>+<em>C. reticulata</em>+<em>C. longa</em> at 0.07% each were found highly effective against <em>R. dominica</em> fumigated after 5, 10, 15 and 20 days. Only <em>M. koenigii</em> at 0.2% was found highly effective against <em>T. castaneum</em> fumigated after 5, 10, 15 and 20 day. The fumigation of grain with <em>M. koenigii</em> at 0.2% completely suppress the infestation and weight loss when it was fumigated after 5, 10, 15 and 20 days while very low infestation and weight loss was observed in grain treated with <em>M. koenigii</em> +<em>C. reticulata</em> at 0.1% each and not affect the organoleptic properties and germination of wheat.</p> Ranjeet Kumar S. N. Tiwari P. S. Pandey ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-30 2018-10-30 463 680 687 10.5073/jka.2018.463.145 Fumigant toxicity of <i>Haplophyllum tuberculatum</i> (Rutaceae) and <i>Nepeta crispa</i> (Lamiaceae) on the Indian meal moth https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10762 <p>The insecticidal activity of essential oil vapors of <em>Haplophyllum tuberculatum</em> (Sapindales: Rutaceae) and <em>Nepeta crispa</em> (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) were evaluated on third instar larvae of <em>Plodia interpunctella</em> (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as one of the major insect pests of stored products. Essential oils of the plants were obtained using Clevenger-type water distillation. GC-MS analyses of the oils demonstrated that the main compounds of <em>H. tuberculatum</em> were ρ-menth-2-en-1-ol-cis (20.15 %), ρ-menth-2-en-1-ol-trans (16.92 %), trans-Piperitol (13.23 %), Piperitone (7.34 %) and cis-Piperitol (6.72 %). It is an important plant that has many medicinal properties. 1,8- Cineole (32.98 %), ß-Pinene (8.70 %), 4aa,7a,7aa-Nepetalactone (8.08 %) and 4aß,7a,7aß-Nepetalactone (6.1 %) were detected as the predominant component in <em>N. crispa.</em> The aerial parts of that are used in traditional medicine. The LC<sub>50</sub> values were estimated after 24 hours for <em>H. tuberculatum</em> and <em>N. crispa</em> as 4.301 and 5.579 µl L<sup>-1</sup> air, respectively. LC<sub>50</sub> values were projected using probit analysis. Results on <em>H. tuberculatum</em> showed more toxicity against the Indian meal moth compared to the <em>N. crispa</em>. In conclusion, the essential oil of the two plants could have potential for application to stored grain and agricultural commodities to control of stored crop pests in IPM programs.</p> Somayyah Ghasemzadeh Shahram Mirfakhraie Roghayeh Najafzadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-30 2018-10-30 463 687 695 10.5073/jka.2018.463.146 Efficiency of ozone gas treatment against <i>Plodia interpunctella</i> (Hübner) (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae) (Indianmeal Moth) in hazelnut https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10763 <p>In this study, ozone gas at different concentrations (16.7, 33.3 and 66.6 mg/L) were exposed to all biological stages (egg, larva, pupa and adult) placed at top and bottom of the hazelnut for various exposure periods (2, 4 and 6 hours). In biological tests conducted in presence of hazelnuts, 100% mortalities of all biological stages of <em>P. interpunctella</em> placed at top of the commodity were obtained at tested ozone concentrations and exposure periods while it was easier to kill the adult and pupa stages that the larva and egg stages. While it was possible to kill 100% of the adults and pupae placed at bottom of the commodity at tested ozone concentrations and exposure periods, 100% mortality of the larvae and eggs were not obtained at any of the ozone treatments. Generally, the mortalities of all life stages of <em>P. interpunctella</em> placed at bottom of the commodity for ozone treatments were lower than those placed at top of the commodity. It was easy to kill the pupae and adults of P. interpunctella placed at bottom of the commodity while the ozone treatments resulted in low mortalities of the egg and larvae placed at bottom of the commodity. Just as 100% mortalities of the larva and adult stages were not obtained even at the highest ozone concentration for the longest exposure period. In conclusion, in this study, it was observed that ozone gas only at high concentrations can control all biological stages of <em>P. interpunctella</em> in hazelnut and therefore could have an alternative potential for methyl bromide in quarantine applications in short application period.</p> Haşim Akbay Ali Arda Işikber Özgür Sağlam Hasan Tunaz Mehmet Kubilay Er ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-30 2018-10-30 463 695 698 10.5073/jka.2018.463.147 Ethyl formate application trials for in-transit fumigation of shipping containers https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10764 E. M. Coetzee James Newman S. McKirdy Y. L. Ren ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-30 2018-10-30 463 699 699 10.5073/jka.2018.463.148 Safe and cost-effective method for application of liquid ethyl formate (Fumate<sup>TM</sup>) as a methyl bromide alternative for perishable commodities https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10765 <p>The cylinderized liquid ethyl formate (EF) formulated with CO<sub>2</sub> is one of the great potential fumigants to replace methyl bromide (MeBr) for fresh fruit. However, it is too expensive to adapt commercial practices, and also involves work place safety issue including handling of heavy cylinders as well as restrict emission of CO<sub>2</sub>, particularly for use in large scale commercial fumigationw. Therefore, it is urgently needed to develop environmental friendly, safe for workers and cost-effective alternative method for application of liquid ethyl formate as a MeBr alternative for perishable commodities. Recently, the environmentally friendly, cost-effective and practically safe use of liquid EF (Fumate<sup>TM</sup>, registered name) with nitrogen gas has been developed and commercialized in Republic of Korea and Australia. The new technology for application of liquid EF is 100 times safer than MeBr in terms of threshold values (EF, TLV = 100 ppm). Ethyl formate is known as food additive and naturally occurred substances as well as a non-ozone depletion chemical. In this report, we demonstrate the liquid EF application technology that offers a clean environment (no ozone depletions and CO<sub>2</sub> emissions), safe to fumigators and related workers and practically cost-effective technology to fumigation industry.</p> Young-Mi Moon Jeong-Oh Yang Bong-Soo Kim Kyung-Il Lee Yonglin Ren James Newman Hei-Geun Kim Tae-Hyung Kwon Dong Cha Byung-Ho Lee ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-30 2018-10-30 463 699 701 10.5073/jka.2018.463.149 Safe and high efficient method for application of liquid ethyl formate (Fumate<sup>TM</sup>) to replace methyl bromide for treatment of imported nursery plants https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10766 <p>There have been significantly increased reports of finding invasive quarantine pests with increasing import plants into Korea. Moreover, the efficacy and work safety issues have been reported regarding use of methyl bromide (MeBr) for fumigation of imported nursery plants. For replacement of MeBr use on imported plants, a new technology of using liquid ethyl formate has been registered in South Korea as Fumate<sup>TM</sup>. The technology involved to mix ethyl format with nitrogen gas to form non-flamable ethyl format formulation. It has been evaluated on various imported plants. The Fumate<sup>TM</sup> is recently developed and commercialized in Republic of Korea and Australia for quarantine treatments on fresh fruits, grains etc. Fumigation with Fumate<sup>TM</sup> offers environmental-friendly and practically safe use of liquid ethyl formate. We have extended the use of liquid EF application technology to quarantine treatment of imported nursery plants.</p> Bong-Soo Kim Young-Mi Moon Jeong-Oh Yang Kyung-Il Lee YongLin Ren James Newman Hei-Geun Kim Tae-Hyung Kwon Se-In Park Byung-Ho Lee ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-30 2018-10-30 463 702 705 10.5073/jka.2018.463.150 A new concept for controlling tiny-scale insect pest in green house – noval technology to apply liquid ethyl formate https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10767 <p>As increased agricultural insecticide uses and trends in insecticide resistance, increased labor cost to apply insecticide and limited its application to fertility season in green house. There is a need of a safe, labor-saving and confined space application concept to manage control tiny-scale insect pest such as thrips and whitefly. Fumigation with ethyl formate (EF), which is considered as effective to various insect pest and safely use in quarantine treatment, was evaluated in the confined space (glass house) and semi-confined space (vinyl house). The new application technology for application of liquid EF could be the one of the key options for control of tiny flying insects in greenhouses that would save labor and operation costs. It could be connected to smartfarm technologies in the near future.</p> Chung-Gyoo Park Tae-Hyung Kwon In-Hong Jeong Min-Soo Kim Hei-Geun Kim Sung-Hwan Ji YongLin Ren Byung-Ho Lee ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-30 2018-10-30 463 705 710 10.5073/jka.2018.463.151 Supporting quarantine and health & safety monitoring of fumigants and industrial chemicals in offshore transport containers with Gasmet Multicomponent FTIR gas detection technology https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10768 Frank Arnold ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-30 2018-10-30 463 710 711 10.5073/jka.2018.463.152 Efficiency of phosphine and modified atmospheres against five different stored products insects https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10769 Francisco Javier Wong-Corral Maria Fernanda Esparza-Soltero José Luis López-Valdez Alberto Olguin Moreno ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-30 2018-10-30 463 711 711 10.5073/jka.2018.463.153 Modeling the distribution of phosphine in cylindrical grain silos with CFD methods for precision fumigation https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10771 <p>In the present study, the distribution of phosphine gas in a cylindrical silo was modeled and compared with available sensor data. The cylindrical silo was filled with wheat and a recirculation system was used to enhance the diffusion of phosphine throughout the grain volume. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed with OpenFoam software, which accounted for gas transport in porous media and sorption effects of phosphine into the grain. A time-dependent source was used to model the phosphine release from Aluminum Phosphide bags. Furthermore, simulation results were obtained for insect mortality as a function of their exposure to phosphine gas. The phosphine concentration measurements were available from calibrated wireless sensors provided by Centaur Analytics, placed near the silo walls at various heights. As the agreement of phosphine measured data with the simulation results was satisfying, it led to considering that the proposed CFD model (equations, boundary conditions, grain properties, recirculation system approach, etc.) was accurate. Utilizing the capabilities of fumigation modeling, the phosphine concentration could then be determined for every location inside the storage volume and at any given time, thus a prediction method for fumigation duration and success could be enabled. Additionally, as the CFD model correlates phosphine exposure with insect mortality, a methodology for planning precision fumigations can now be established.</p> Efstathios Kaloudis Sotiris Bantas Christos G. Athanassiou Paraskevi Agrafioti Vasilis Sotiroudas ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-01 2018-11-01 463 711 718 10.5073/jka.2018.463.154 Phosphine distribution during fumigation of wheat in steel bins: extended abstract https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10772 <p>Phosphine is a widely used fumigant for controlling insects in stored grain, but fumigation effectiveness is often compromised by suboptimal distribution of the gas. Leaks in the grain bin wall and roof, foreign material in the grain, and phosphine placement contribute to regions of insufficient concentration of fumigant, resulting in insect survival and leading to phosphine-resistant insect populations. Phosphine distribution was studied during field tests in temporarily sealed bins to compare distribution from conventional probed tablets to the distribution using a closed-loop recirculation system. The results showed uneven distribution patterns and leakage over time with conventional probed tablets, which resulted in some areas in the lower half of the grain mass receiving no phosphine and some other locations remaining below the target phosphine concentration for the entire period of fumigation. The closed-loop fumigations with the same phosphine dosage yielded much more uniform phosphine concentrations, but suffered from equal or greater phosphine leakage losses.</p> Mark Casada Kaliramesh Siliveru Frank H. Arthur Daniel Brabec James F. Campbell Ronaldo Maghirang Dirk E. Maier Taylor Conley Carol Jones ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-01 2018-11-01 463 718 724 10.5073/jka.2018.463.155 Fumigation of apples and sunflower seeds with phosphine – desorption behavior and aroma profiles https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10773 Dagmar W. Borchmann Nadine Austel Lars Andernach Harald Jungnickel Peter Laux Andreas Luch Hartwig Schulz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-01 2018-11-01 463 724 725 10.5073/jka.2018.463.156 Dates fumigation with phosphine https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10774 <p>Stored dates are usually infested by sap beetles and moths. For years, the common practice for dates disinfestation was fumigation with methyl bromide (MB). After MB phase-out, heat treatment and modified atmosphere are used. However, there are several limitations of these methods. In search for alternatives for dates disinfestation, fumigation by phosphine was evaluated. <br>Commercial fumigations of Medjool dates variety using phosphine were conducted in a standard 20 ft. shipping container. Two formulations of phosphine were used: Magtoxin<sup>®</sup> Plates 56% (Detia Freyberg GmbH, Germany), and Phostoxin<sup>®</sup> Tablets 56% (Detia Freyberg GmbH, Germany). The phosphine dosage range was 1-4 g/m<sup>3</sup>. The exposure time range was 24-72 hrs. Several fumigations were carried out by an innovative phosphine generator model OMT 501 developed by Universal Probes. Most fumigations carried out demonstrated total dates disinfestation. The application of Magtoxin plates, especially using the OMT 501 demonstrates significant advantages versus Phostoxin tablets; the advantages were in quicker gas development, and achieving much higher maximum and pre-ventilation phosphine concentration levels. Upon fumigation using the OMT 501, plates are easily collected and disposed, no residual dust left on the dates, which avoided their contamination. No phosphine residues were found in the fumigated dates, neither changes in organoleptic properties were noted. Phosphine fumigation using the phosphine generator model OMT 501 provides safer, quicker, more efficient dates disinfestation.</p> Moshe Kostyukovsky Aviv Rapaport Elazar Quinn ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-01 2018-11-01 463 725 727 10.5073/jka.2018.463.157 Determination of phosphine concentration for Cryptolestes ferrugineus (S.) control in wheat in Sonora, Mexico https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10775 Maria Fernanda Esparza-Soltero José Luis López-Valdez Alberto Olguín-Moreno Francisco Wong ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-01 2018-11-01 463 727 728 10.5073/jka.2018.463.158 Efficacy studies on ECO<sub>2</sub>FUME<sup>®</sup> phosphine fumigant for complete control of Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum in stored maize in Thailand https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10777 <p>ECO<sub>2</sub>FUME<sup>®</sup> fumigation of maize bag stacks under gas proof sheets was conducted to establish the optimal dosages (application rate) and exposure times (fumigation period) against mixed-age cultures of <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> and<em> Tribolium castaneum</em>. The Complete Randomized Design (CRD) experimental design was employed, with 3 replications and 4 treatments. The experiments were divided into three groups: 1) treatment with a 25 g/m<sup>3</sup> ECO<sub>2</sub>FUME<sup>®</sup> application rate (350 ppm phosphine) for 3, 4, and 5 days and a control treatment; 2) treatment with an ECO<sub>2</sub>FUME<sup>®</sup> application rate of 50 g/m<sup>3</sup> (700 ppm phosphine) for 2, 3, and 4 days and a control treatment; and 3) treatment with a 70 g/m<sup>3</sup> ECO<sub>2</sub>FUME<sup>®</sup> application rate (1,000 ppm phosphine) for 1, 2, and 3 days and a control treatment. The three target phosphine concentrations of 350 ppm, 700 ppm and 1,000 ppm were maintained during the whole fumigation period. Results of the studies showed that no insect was alive at all dosages and exposure times. The studies also indicated that fumigation with ECO<sub>2</sub>FUME<sup>®</sup> could reduce the fumigation period by increasing the phosphine concentration. The effective fumigation protocols on maize against mixed-age cultures of <em>S. zeamais</em> and <em>T. castaneum</em> were ECO<sub>2</sub>FUME<sup>®</sup> application rates of 25 g/m<sup>3</sup> for 3 days, 50 g/m<sup>3</sup> for 2 days and 70 g/m<sup>3</sup> for 1 day. The target phosphine concentration must be maintained throughout the fumigation period to achieve 100% mortality of all stages of insects.</p> Rungsima Kengkanpanich Duangsamorn Suthisut Pavinee Noochanapal Panania Pobsok ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-01 2018-11-01 463 728 734 10.5073/jka.2018.463.159 Application of phosphine fumigant for controlling rice storage insect pests in foundation seeds https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10780 <p>The development of phosphine resistance in storage insect pests is now problematic, so the increase of rate and frequency of phosphine fumigation in a storage room is needed. However, an adverse effect on seed germination, and human hazard needs to be tested. This experiment was aimed to find the most suitable methods used in combination with phosphine fumigation to reduce the risk of phosphine exposure. The treatments were (1) phosphine fumigation for 7 days and then open a plastic cloth (2) phosphine fumigation for 7 days and continue to cover a plastic cloth (3) phosphine fumigation for 7 days and spray pirimiphos methyl on sack (4) phosphine fumigation for 7 days and use a light trap (5) treat seeds with sweet flag powder before phosphine fumigation for 7 days (6) no phosphine fumigation with plastic cloth opening and (7) no phosphine fumigation with plastic cloth covering. In each treatment, seeds were sampled every month for 12 months to determine seed quality and insect populations. The results showed that seeds treated with sweet flag powder and fumed with phosphine for 7 days can significantly control storage rice insect pests in the first and the second year of experiments. The seed moisture content in each treatment changed in a similar pattern throughout 12 months storage in both years (13.4 – 13.7%). The seed germination showed similar results (more than 80% after 6 months storage), except the treatment of 7 days phosphine fumigation with plastic cloth covering which resulted in a slowly decline in germination. Seed weight losses and numbers of insect pests in the treatment with sweet flag powder were significantly less than the others.</p> Ekkarat Kaewnango Anchalee Prasertsak ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-01 2018-11-01 463 735 738 10.5073/jka.2018.463.160 Laboratory evaluation of Turkish diatomaceous earths as potential stored grain protectants https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10781 <p>In this study, efficacy of local diatomaceous earths (DE) collected from different regions of Turkey against stored grain insects, <em>Sitophilus oryzae</em> (L.), <em>Tribolium confusum</em> du Val. and <em>Rhyzopertha dominica</em> (F.), was investigated. For this purpose, biological tests were carried out at concentrations of 500 and 1000 ppm (mg DE / kg wheat) of 9 local diatomaceous earths and one commercial diatomaceous earth, namely Silicosec<sup>®</sup> as positive control at 25 ± 1 ° C temperature and 65 ± 5% relative humidity in wheat. In addition, the studies on some of the chemical and physical analysis of the tested diatomaceous earths (silicon dioxide (SiO<sub>2</sub>) ratio, particle size and adhesion rate on commodity) were also conducted. In biological tests conducted at 500 ppm concentration for 14 days of exposure in wheat the highest mortality rates (97 to 98%) of <em>S. oryzae</em> adults were recorded in CB2N-1, AGN-1 and BGN-1 diatomaceous earths, while the highest mortality rates of <em>T. confusum</em> adults were obtained from only AGN-1 and BGN-1 diatomaceous earths. In the case of R. dominica, the highest mortality rate (64.4%) was recorded only in CB2N-1 diatomaceous earth. At concentration of 1000 ppm for 14 days of exposure in wheat, 100% mortality of <em>S. oryzae</em> adults was observed in all tested local diatomaceous earths except FB2N-1 and Silicosec<sup>®</sup> while mortality rates of <em>T. confusum</em> adults ranging from % 95 to %100 were obtained in all tested local diatomaceous earths except FB2N-1, FBN-1 and Silicosec<sup>®</sup>. In the case of <em>R. dominica</em> adults, mortality rates ranging from 80% to 93% were recorded in CB2N-1, CCN-1 and AG2N-1 diatomaceous earths. In conclusion, laboratory bioassays indicated that CB2N-1 and BGN-1 local diatomaceous earths had high efficacy against<em> S. oryzae, T. confusum</em> and <em>R. dominica</em> adults and thus could be potential to be successfully used for controlling stored grain insect pests as a grain protectant.</p> Sezgin Akçali Ali Arda Işikber Özgür Sağlam Hasan Tunaz Mehmet Kubilay Er ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-01 2018-11-01 463 739 743 10.5073/jka.2018.463.161 Lethal effect of Turkish dıatomaceous earth (Bgn-1 ) agaınst adults of German cockroaches (<i>Blatella germanıca</i> L.) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10782 Kadir Özcan Hasan Tunaz Ali Arda Işikber Mehmet Kubilay Er ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-01 2018-11-01 463 743 746 10.5073/jka.2018.463.162 Efficacy of seven Turkish diatomaceous earths against <i>Callosobruchus maculatus</i> (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchninae) on stored chickpea https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10783 <p>In this study, insecticidal efficacy of seven different local diatomaceous earths (DE) obtained from different deposits in Turkey together with two commercial DEs, Silicosec<sup>®</sup> (Biofa AG- Germany) and Desect<sup>®</sup> (Ep Naturals- America) against <em>Callosobruchus maculatus</em> (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchninae) an important pest of stored chickpea at five different concentrations (100, 300, 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm) was evaluated. The local DEs were coded as BGN, BHN, AG2N, AC2N, CB2N, CCN, FB2N. Mortality of the adults was assessed after 1, 3, 5 and 7 days of exposure, and consequently progeny (F1) production on treated chickpeas was recorded 42 days later. The tests were carried out under laboratory conditions of 25±1 °C, 55±5 % R.H. in a dark place. The most effective DEs after 1 day of exposure were CCN, AG2N and BHN causing 75%, 59%, 58% mortalities, respectively at 1500 ppm concentration. Silicosec<sup>®</sup>, Desect<sup>®</sup>, BGN, AC2N, applied at 1500 ppm concentration achieved 98-100% mortality of <em>C.maculatus</em> after 7 days of exposure, showing similar high insecticidal efficacy. The CCN, BHN, AG2N and CB2N caused 97-99% reduction in progeny (F1) production. Generally, increasing concentration significantly reduced the progeny production. In conclusion, this study has shown that three Turkish DEs, namelyCCN, AG2N and BHN highly toxic to <em>C. maculatus</em> after 3 days of exposurein comparison with commercial DEs Silicosec<sup>®</sup> and Desect<sup>®</sup>. These local DEs could be used in the management of pests of stored chickpea.</p> Mehmet Akif Gultekin Ozgur Saglam Ali Arda Işikber ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-01 2018-11-01 463 746 750 10.5073/jka.2018.463.163 Residual efficacy of spinosad-treated surfaces on Rhyzopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum adults https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10784 <p><em>Rhyzopertha dominica</em> and <em>Tribolium castaneum</em> cause massive losses in stored food. These insects are effectively controlled by synthetic insecticides and fumigants but they accompany many demerits on biotic and abiotic environment. Spinosad is a bacterial formulation and a reduced-risk insecticide which is registered for stored grain protection in many countries. Despite many avenues of research on spinosad, its residual efficacy on certain insect species remains undiscovered. The objective of this research was to evaluate the residual efficacy of spinosad-treated surfaces on the survival of <em>R. dominica</em> and <em>T. castaneum</em> adults. The label rate of spinosad (25 ppm) was sprayed on polypropylene, jute, polythene, metal and filter paper. One-month-old twenty adults of R. dominica or T. castaneum were introduced on to the surfaces treated with spinosad and maintained at ambient environmental conditions. The mortality was counted at 2 and 6 days following introduction of adults. The mortality differed with the surface, insect species and duration of exposure. The current study highlights the possibility of controlling <em>R. dominica</em> or <em>T. castaneum</em> by spinosad sprayed on different surfaces.</p> Leanage Kanaka Wolly Wijayaratne Dissanayaka Mudiyanselage Saman Kumara Dissanayaka Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage Prabodha Sammani Rohan Harshalal Sarathchandra Rajapakse ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-01 2018-11-01 463 751 752 10.5073/jka.2018.463.164 Effectiveness of spinosad and spinetoram against five stored-product beetle pests under high relative humidity conditions https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10785 <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate spinosad and spinetoram effectiveness against <em>S. granarius, S. oryzae, T. confusum, T. castaneum</em> and <em>R. dominica</em> in wheat grain under high relative humidity (75%). The insecticides were applied at the rates of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg a.i./kg. Mortality was assessed after 2, 7, 14 and 21 days, and progeny reduction and grain damage caused by the insects were also assessed. <br>All rates of both insecticides caused 98-100% mortality of R. dominica after 7 days, and 100% mortality after 14 and 21 days of exposure. Both insecticides achieved high mortality (97-100%) after 21 days of contact of <em>S. granarius</em> with 1 and 2 mg/kg, and <em>S. oryzae</em> with 2 mg/kg rate. The highest mortality of<em> T. confusum</em> and <em>T. castaneum</em> was recorded after 21 days of contact with 2 mg/kg of both insecticides, 54-55% and 25-31%, respectively. All rates of both insecticides caused high progeny reduction of &gt;99% of <em>R. dominica</em>, &gt;90% of <em>T. confusum</em> and <em>94% of T. castaneum</em> (only with 2 mg/kg). The highest <em>S. granarius</em> progeny reduction (&gt;90%) was found in wheat treated with 2 mg/kg spinosad and 1-2 mg/kg spinetoram, while the greatest progeny reduction of <em>S. oryzae</em> was observed in wheat treated with 2 mg/kg spinetoram. Wheat grain damage caused by <em>R. dominica</em> was very low, i.e. up to 0.2% in wheat treated with all rates of spinosad and spinetoram, while <em>S. granarius</em> and <em>S. oryzae</em> caused up to 5% damage only in wheat treated with 2 mg/kg of spinetoram.</p> Goran Andrić Petar Kljajić Marijana Pražić Golić Stanislav Trdan Tanja Bohinc Žiga Laznik ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-01 2018-11-01 463 752 759 10.5073/jka.2018.463.165 Spinosad-induced stress on the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10788 <p>Although seldom considered, sublethal insecticide exposure may lead to harmful, neutral, or even beneficial responses that may affect (or not) the behavior and fitness of the exposed insects. Intriguingly, little is known about such effects on stored product insect pests and even less is available regarding the bioinsecticide, spinosad. Thus, we assessed the sublethal effects of spinosad on walking, feeding, drinking and mating behaviors of maize weevils (<em>Sitophilus zeamais</em>), also assessing their survival, reproductive output, and grain loss compared with maize weevils exposed to the pyrethroid deltamethrin (as positive control), and water only (negative control). Both spinosad and deltamethrin were able to effectively control the insects, although the latter caused a faster mortality than the former. Behavioral pattern changes were caused by both insecticides, especially deltamethrin, triggering irritability (i.e., avoidance after contact). Different feeding and drinking responses were also detected with significant avoidance to deltamethrin, but not to spinosad. Maize weevil couples sublethally exposed to deltamethrin and spinosad exhibited altered reproductive behavior, a likely consequence of their altered activity, but deltamethrin caused greater behavioral changes. Curiously, higher progeny emergence and grain loss were observed in deltamethrin-exposed insects, suggesting that this pyrethroid insecticide elicits hormesis in maize weevils that may compromise control efficacy by this compound. In contrast, such effect was not detected with spinosad, which did not elicit avoidance allowing the intended weevil exposure and control.</p> Raul Narciso C. Guedes Mayra Vélez Spencer S. Walse ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 463 759 768 10.5073/jka.2018.463.166 Effects of <i>Hemizygia welwitschii</i> leaf extract fractions on postharvest infestation of maize by <i>Sitophilus zeamais</i> Motsculsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10789 <p>As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, leaf powder of <em>Hemizygia welwitschii</em> was sequentially extracted in hexane, acetone and methanol. Bioassays were carried out to establish the most active fraction(s) against <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> in maize. Maize grains (50 g) were treated with concentrations within the range 2, 4, 6, and 10 g/kg of extract and <em>Azadirachta indica</em> seed oil (positive control) in the laboratory. The total number of progeny emerging from grains infested separately with <em>S. zeamais</em> eggs, larvae and pupae were recorded. Adult mortality counts were carried out 1, 3, 7 and 14 d post-exposure. Acetone extract was more toxic to the eggs, larvae and pupae than the other extracts, inhibiting progeny production by 90.90%, 88.10% and 100%, respectively, at the concentration 10 g/kg. For the same concentration, <em>A. indica</em> seed oil reduced progeny production by 100% for eggs, 96.08% for larvae and 70.93% for pupae. Hexane extract was more potent to the adult weevil than the other extracts, recording 100% mortality for the concentration 10 g/kg within 14 d. LC<sub>50</sub> values were 0.78 (Hexane), 5.52 (acetone) and 1.69 g/kg (methanol). Extracts of <em>H. welwitschii</em> leaves had sufficient efficacy to be a component of storage pest management package for <em>S. zeamais</em>.</p> Elias Nchiwan Nukenine Clement Saidou Gabriel Fotso Tagne Haman Katamssadan Tofel Calvin Zoumba Christoph Böttcher Cornel Adler ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 463 768 773 10.5073/jka.2018.463.167 Chemical properties and efficacy of Sweet orange essential oil nanoemulsion applied as cold aerosol against two stored product beetles https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10790 <p>Common control strategies to manage stored product pests are mainly based on the use of synthetic insecticides and fumigants. Consumer’s demand for pesticide-free food, and the increasing resistance of pests to traditional insecticides, dictate the need to evaluate alternative control methods. For this purpose, many sustainable techniques have been tested for the control of stored product pests. Among them, Citrus essential oils can represent a valid alternative to synthetic insecticides. The effects of Sweet Orange essential oil (EO) nanoemulsion applied as cold aerosol were evaluated against adults of <em>Tribolium confusum</em> du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and <em>Cryptolestes ferrugineus</em> Stephens (Coleoptera: Cucujidae). Both chemical and physical characterization of the EO-based formulation was carried out. The developed formulation had an average size belonging to the nanometer scale and a low polydispersity index. The relatively high zeta potential value confirms the stability over time of the developed formulation. The efficacy of the tested formulation showed a dose-dependent response and the cumulated mortality of the exposed insects increaseduntil 24h of exposure for <em>C. ferrugineus</em> and until 120h for <em>T. confusum</em>. The tested formulation was more effective against <em>T. confusum</em> adults (LD50= 86.30 ppm) than <em>C. ferrugineus</em> ones (LD50= 36.79 ppm). The results of this study coupled with the large availability at reasonable costs of Sweet orange EO, are promising for the potential development of new tools against stored product pests.</p> Giulia Giunti Orlando Campolo Agatino Russo Vincenzo Palmeri Lucia Zappala ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 463 773 778 10.5073/jka.2018.463.168 Fogging loads of California fresh citrus for control of Asian citrus psyllid, <i>Diaphorina citri</i> https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10791 <p>Contact insecticides are commonly applied as fogs to disinfest and disinfect spaces. Recently, these fogs have been adapted to treat commodity within the spaces, and much has been learned regarding the efficacy of this process. When considering fresh citrus in California, fogs are applied to control both insects and microbes. One insect pest, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is a quarantine pest in California and limiting its geographic distribution is a major goal of the California citrus industry. While a variety of phytosanitary measures can be used to control adult ACP once fruit is at a packing house, ultimately, a treatment must be developed to disinfest field-run fruit prior to its exiting the grove. High-pressure fogging with 1,100-L of an aqueous mixture containing 0.2% Evergreen<sup>®</sup> (6% pyrethrins &amp; 60% piperonyl butoxide) and 0.5% (v/v) BreakThru<sup>®</sup> (polysiloxane surfactant) was explored in laboratory-, pilot-, and commercial-scale trials as an approach to disinfest a 48-bin trailer load of fresh citrus. Laboratory-scale studies were conducted to quantify, and subsequently model, insecticidal coverage as a function of temperature, surface area, droplet size, and fog volume. Results are discussed in the context of experimental variability across confirmatory trials and continued efforts to optimize the technical and economic feasibility of fogging as a postharvest control strategy.</p> Stephen Corbett David Sorenson Nastaran Tofangsazi Sandipa G. Gautam Spencer Walse ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 463 778 783 10.5073/jka.2018.463.169 Toxicity of fine powders, filter cake and Triplex against <i>Sitophilus zeamais</i> adults https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10792 <p>Filter cake and Triplex are powdered by-products of aluminum sulfate and soap factories, respectively. There is limited data about the use of these powders as grain protectants. This study was aimed at determining contact toxicity of both powders against <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em>, a common pest of stored grains. Lethal concentration of both powders to S. zeamais was determined by exposing 10 adults for 12 h in 9 cm diameter concrete arenas inside Petri dishes dusted with filter cake (0 - 8 g/m<sup>2</sup>) or Triplex (0 - 9 g/m<sup>2</sup>). Lethal time was determined by exposing adults to 3 g/m<sup>2</sup> filter cake and 9 g/m<sup>2</sup> Triplex for 1 to 24 h. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. At the intended exposure time, adults were transferred to 150-ml round plastic containers with 30 g of wheat and held at 28 degree Celsius and 65% r.h. for 14 d to determine mortality. Adult progeny production was determined after 42 d. A 50% mortality of adults was obtained at 0.61 g/m<sup>2</sup> of filter cake and 1.61 g/m<sup>2</sup> of Triplex concentrations with a 12 h exposure. The corresponding effective concentrations for 50% reduction of progeny production were 0.18 g/m<sup>2</sup> of filter cake and 2.66 g/m<sup>2</sup> of Triplex. Lethal times for 50% mortality of adults after exposure to 3 g/m<sup>2</sup> of filter cake and 9 g/m<sup>2</sup> of Triplex were 4.42 and 4.29 h, respectively. The corresponding effective times for 50% reduction of progeny production after exposure to 3 g/m<sup>2</sup> of filter cake and 9 g/m<sup>2</sup> of Triplex were 1.74 and 2.34 h respectively. The overall result indicated that filter cake was highly toxic to <em>S. zeamais</em> than Triplex. Therefore, filter cake is a potential powder to be included in the integrated pest management practice in small holder farmers’ storage structures after tested under real field conditions.</p> Tefaye M. Tadesse Bhadriraju Subramanyam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 463 783 788 10.5073/jka.2018.463.170 Efficacy of 10 dusts on life cycle of <i>Tribolium castaneum</i> https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10793 Yanyu Li Manjree Agarwal David Eagling YongLin Ren Yang Cao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 463 788 789 10.5073/jka.2018.463.171 Susceptibility of stored grain insects to the insect growth regulator methoprene https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10794 <p>The insect growth regulator (IGR) methoprene is labeled in the United States (US) for direct application to stored grain commodities, and as a residual surface treatment to empty grain bins and flooring surfaces inside indoor structures. Methoprene is also labeled in the US as an aerosol for use in indoor areas. One of the challenges in research with methoprene and stored product insects is through design of experiments that mimic how methoprene would be used in practical applications. Recent research with methoprene will be used to describe experimental designs to examine efficacy of methoprene when used as a grain protectant.</p> Frank H. Arthur ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 463 789 794 10.5073/jka.2018.463.172 Comparative efficacy of spinetoram, chlorfenapyr, cypermethrin, beta-cyfluthrin against <i>Tribolium castaneum</i> (Herbst) and <i>Trogoderma granarium</i> (Everts) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10795 Mansoor ul Hasan Qurban Ali Muhammad Faisal Faizan Amjad Habib ur Rehmann ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 463 794 795 10.5073/jka.2018.463.173 Toxicity of four Cuban botanical derivatives against two stored-products coleopteran pests https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10796 <p>Plants are a source of substances for protection of stored products. The Cuban flora has not yet been fully studied as a source of pesticides for postharvest protection, partly due to its great diversity. The toxicity of four Cuban plant derivatives against <em>Lasioderma serricorne</em> (F.) and <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> Motschulsky was investigated. The anti-insect activity of the powders and the essential oil from plants belonging to Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Piperaceae was tested. Mortality and emergence of adult insects and the repellent effect of products were evaluated. Two products derived from <em>Piper aduncum</em> subsp. <em>ossanum</em>, caused high mortality (81,6 and 100%), reduced emergence (27,9 and 0,4%) and exhibited strong repellent activity on <em>L. serricorne</em>. Against <em>S. zeamais</em>, treatments with the highest mortality values were stems of <em>Lonchocarpus punctatus</em> (72,4%), seeds and stems of <em>Canavalia ensiformis</em> (64,9 and 69,9%), and leaves of <em>Tithonia diversifolia</em> (67,2%). The progeny production of <em>S. zeamais</em> was inhibited by powders of <em>L. punctatus</em> stems (31,8%), <em>C. ensiformis</em> seeds (40,5%), leaves (43,7%) and stems (30,6%), and <em>T. diversifolia</em> leaves (38,7%). The stems of <em>C. ensiformis</em>, leaves of <em>T. diversifolia</em> and <em>L. punctatus</em> had the highest repellent effect. These products have potential for small-scale treatments of grains for protection against both insects, and <em>P. aduncum</em> subsp. <em>ossanum</em>-based products to control <em>L. serricorne</em> infestation in tobacco. Identification of local candidates to develop effective and safe pesticides offers new alternatives to the Cuban agriculture in the control of storage pests.</p> Oriela Pino Pérez Sayonara González Juan Carlos Pérez Rafael S. Herrera Nurys Valenciaga Dayleni Fortes Yaima Sánchez Susana Ramirez Moraima Suris ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 463 795 802 10.5073/jka.2018.463.174 Activity of two deltamethrin formulations on different surfaces against rice weevil, <i>Sitophilus oryzae</i> (L.) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10797 <p>Several methods are used to control stored product insects. The spraying of empty structures with insecticides, prior to the introduction of produce, is an important method for preventing development of insects. It is known that insecticide activity varies according to the various sprayed surfaces. In this study, the activity of deltamethrin was examined on concrete and plastic surfaces. Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid, active by contact against a variety of insects; applied in Israel in two formulations: KESHET 2.5% EC and BUNGY 1.5% SC (ADAMA Makhteshim Ltd.). Adults of the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), served as target insect in all experiments. The research was carried out in plastic Petri dishes and in Petri dishes with layer of concrete. Deltamethrin (KESHET 2.5% EC) was applied in water solution in doses of 0.02, 0.1, 0.5 g/m<sup>²</sup>. Without concrete, complete mortality of S. oryzae was obtained at a concentration of 0.02 g/m<sup>²</sup>, whereas in concrete plates, no mortality was found in all 3 concentrations. In contrast, deltamethrin (BUNGY 1.5% SC) in doses of 0.1 g/m<sup>²</sup>, caused 100% mortality with and without concrete layer. The same results were found in the commercial warehouse. No difference in efficiency was found between the spraying methods: airbrush (Sparmax DH-125) or dripping by pipette. The results show that the efficacy of warehouse spraying by deltamethrin depends on its formulation.</p> Elazar Quinn Anatoly Trostanetsky ´Mula Nega Rafi Hefetz Moshe Kostyukovsky ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 463 802 807 10.5073/jka.2018.463.175 Evaluation of two new insecticide formulations based on inert dusts and botanicals against four stored-grain beetles https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10801 Zlatko O. Korunic Paul G. Fields ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 807 808 10.5073/jka.2018.463.176 Protecting stored maize grain against the <i>Sitophilus zeamais</i> with rice husk ash https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10802 <p>Maize weevil (<em>Sitophilus zeamais</em>) is an important insect that affect the maize grain on the field and in storage. There are several ways of controlling this insect but the most commonly used is the use of chemicals. Although these chemicals are very effective, they are often expensive and not available to poor rural farmers resulting in high post-harvest losses of their harvested grains. In this study, the potential of using rice husk ash (RHA) as a protectant against maize weevil during storage was investigated. Cultured maize weevils were introduced into 400g of maize admixed with RHA at concentrations of 5g, 10g and 20g. A control set-up of both Actellic 50EC and no RHA was set-up to compare the effect of the ash treatments on weevil mortality, re-emergence and grain damage. The treatments were replicated and set-up in the lab at room temperature condition. Results showed that, 100% mortality was observed for the Actellic 50EC treatment 5days after application. However, there was no significant difference (p&gt;0.01) after 60 days of storage between the 20g RHA application and the Actellic 50EC relative to weevil mortality, emergence and grain damage. With the 20g RHA admixture recording the highest mortality and suppression effect on adult weevil emergence as well as the lowest grain damage, the use of RHA can provide a significant economic advantage to farmers for storage of maize in tropical developing countries if reliable recommendations on application rate can be made for the protection of stored maize.</p> Joseph O. Akowuah George Obeng-Akrofi Emmanuel Minka Alberta Barima ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 808 813 10.5073/jka.2018.463.254 Effectiveness of binary combinations of <i>Plectranthus glandulosus</i> leaf powder and <i>Hymenocardia acida</i> wood ash against <i>Sitophilus zeamais</i> (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10803 <p>Combinations of botanicals could enhance biological activity against insects. This in turn, will reduce amount of botanical used in storage protection. In this issue, the bioassay was carried out on <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> to assess the effectiveness of binary combinations of <em>Hymenocardia acida</em> wood ash and <em>Plectranthus glandulosus</em> leaf powder regarding adult toxicity, progeny inhibition, and reduction of damage and germination ability. <em>Plectranthus glandulosus</em> leaf powder, <em>H. acida</em> wood ash and their binary combinations significantly induced mortality of <em>S. zeamais</em> adult (P? 0.0001). The higher mortality rate was achieved by the highest content (40 g/kg) of <em>H. acida</em> wood ash (94.66%) and 25PG75HA (94.59%) within 14 days of exposure. The combinations of <em>P. glandulosus</em> leaf powder with <em>H. acida</em> at different proportions produced different interactions. The combination made up by 75% of <em>P. glandulosus</em> leaf powder with 25% of <em>H. acida</em> wood ash produced synergistic effect whereas that made up by 50% of each of two powders had antagonistic effect in weevil mortality. The three combinations of <em>H. acida</em> and <em>P. glandulosus</em> significantly reduced the progeny production. In term of inhibition of F1, the combination 25PG75HA revealed more effective than the two other. The grain damage and population increase were significantly reduced. In general, the non-infested maize grain had a good germination rate than the infested ones. The treatments did not have negative effect on seed germination. From These results, the two powders and their binary combinations could be used to reduce grain infestation by insect while taking in account the proportions of insecticidal powders implied in the combination.</p> J. W. Goudoungou Elias Nchiwan Nukenine Christopher Suh T. Gangué D. Ndjonka ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 813 822 10.5073/jka.2018.463.177 Comparative lethality of rice husk ash and a diatomaceous eartht adults of four storage beetles https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10804 <p>Lethality of rice husk ash (RHA) and a diatomaceous earth (SilicoSec) (DE) to adults of <em>Sitophilus zeamais, S. granarius, Lasioderma serricorne</em> and <em>Callosobruchus maculatus</em> was investigated under controlled conditions of 25 ± 2° C and 60 ± 3% relative humidity. Each product was tested at 0.05 g to 0.5 g/20 g of grain respectively in glass Petri dishes against 20 adults of each beetle. Adult mortality was observed up to 10 days post treatment. RHA/DE mixtures (1:1, 3:1 and 1:3 ratios) were also tested at 2% of grain weight. Additionally, RHA and DE were tested at low dosages (0.01 g to 0.04 g/20 g) against adults of <em>C. maculatus</em> alone. The DE generally produced significantly higher mortality of all the adult storage beetles and at earlier observation times, than RHA at the lower dosages (&lt; 0.2 g). Adult mortality produced by RHA and DE in<em> S. zeamais</em> and <em>S. granarius</em> increased with increase in dosage from 0.05 g to 0.5 g. The RHA/DE mixtures generally produced similar mortality of all the adult storage beetles irrespective of post-treatment exposure time. The <em>S. zeamais</em> and <em>S. granarius</em> were generally more tolerant to the DE and RHA treatments than <em>L. serricorne</em> and <em>C. maculatus</em>. Percentage mortality of <em>C. maculatus</em> adults when DE was applied at low dosages (0.01 g to 0.04 g) was generally higher than RHA applied at similar dosages, up to 3 days-post treatment. All treatments produced 100% mortality of <em>C. maculatus</em> adults 4 days-post treatment. The data further confirm the efficacy of DE and RHA as insecticidal dusts at the dosage rate of 0.5 g or more per kg of grain.</p> Thomas Ofuya Cornel Adler ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 823 829 10.5073/jka.2018.463.178 Effects of different inert dusts on Sitophilus oryzae and Plodia interpunctella during contact exposure https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10805 <p>The use of natural inert dusts against storage insect pests is increasing recently, as an alternative to conventional insecticides. Laboratory study was carried out to evaluate the contact effect of three inert dusts, diatomaceous earth (DE), kaoline (KA) and vermiculite (VE), at rates 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 gm<sup>-2</sup>, against adults of<em> Sitophilus oryzae</em> (L.) and larvae of <em>Plodia interpunctella</em> (Hubner). Insect mortality was evaluated 1, 2, 3 and 7 days after the exposure. Insect mortality varied depending on the species, concentrations and exposure periods. The DE and KA caused 86.7-98% mortality of <em>S. oryzae</em> after 2 days of exposure at the highest rates, while at 5 and 7.5 gm<sup>-2</sup>, 100% mortality was achieved only after 7 days. The highest rates of inert dusts caused 42-50% (DE) and 60-75% (KA) mortality of <em>P. interpunctella</em> larvae only after 7days. The mortality of moths increased gradually with the concentration and 100% was achieved 3 days after the contact with DE and KA (10, 15 and 20 g m<sup>-2</sup>). However, inert dusts induced faster pupation of <em>P. interpunctella</em>, while adult emergence was reduced and adults had smaller body-sizes, compared to control. The VE caused relatively low mortalities (7-11% of <em>S. oryzae</em> adults and 5-8% of <em>P. interpunctella</em> larvae) at all tested rates during the entire experiment. Our results have shown good insecticidal effect of DE and KA against <em>S. oryzae</em> and <em>P. interpunctella</em> at 10, 15 and 20 gm<sup>-2</sup>. These products could therefore be used by small-scale farmers to protect stored grains against insect pest infestation.</p> Sonja Gvozdenac Snežana Tanasković S. Krnjajic D. Prvulović Jelena Ovuka A. Sedlar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 829 834 10.5073/jka.2018.463.179 Biopesticidal potential of green chemicals against <i>Callosobruchus analis</i> (f.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10806 <p>Pulses have 20-27% proteins which is 2- 3 times higher than traditional cereals. These constitute the main source of proteins for developing countries, like India where per capita consumption of the animal protein is low, thus they are rightly considered the <strong>poor man’s meat</strong>. India is largest pulse consumer, importer and producer country of the world occupying an area of 228.47 lakh hectares with the production of 17380 million tones every year. With the United Nations declaration of 2016 as International Year of Pulses to replace the social evil of malnutrition by legume, the research pertaining to the biology and bio intensive management of bruchids pests has become increasingly important. Therefore, laboratory bioassay of essential oils which are regarded as “Green Chemicals” extracted from <em>Zanthoxylum armatum</em> DC., <em>Rabdosia rugosa</em> Wall. ex Benth, <em>Artemisia maritima</em> Linn. and <em>Colebrookea oppositifolia</em> Sm. by hydro distillation was carried out against <em>Callosobruchus analis</em> (F.) to evaluate biopesticidal potential in terms of oviposition and progeny deterrence and ovicidal activities. There was a significant difference in the number of eggs laid on treated and control sets and among the different treatments of essential oils. <em>Z. armatum</em> at 100 µl/ml allowed the bruchid to lay only 19.15±3.6 eggs as compared to 82.35±4.5 in control and proved to be most effective treatment with 76.74% oviposition deterrence. <em>R. rugosa</em> and <em>A. maritima</em> oil were found most effective in reducing the egg hatchability to 48.00±3.2 and 49.52±2.2% respectively at a lowest dose of 10 µl/ml. Egg hatching inhibition percentage increased with an increase in concentration of all the treatments. <em>R. rugosa</em> oil at 100 µl/ml proved to be most effective in reducing the adult emergence with 85.48% progeny deterrence followed by <em>A. maritima</em> showing 81.67% deterrence. All the tested essential oils revealed a wide range of bioactivities against the bruchid pest.</p> Desh Raj Thakur ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 834 839 10.5073/jka.2018.463.180 Effectiveness of essential oils from Ngaoundere, against post-harvest insect and fungal pests of maize https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10807 <p>Successful storage of harvest is a matter of utmost importance in the Sudano-Guinean agro-ecological zone where intense cultivation takes place only once a year. Poor and rudimentary drying/storage methods, high relative humidity as well as inaccessibility to the chemical pesticides leave stored maize at the mercy of insect and fungal attack. Insect attack favours secondary attack by fungi; both leading to a fall in the nutritional, sanitary and organoleptic qualities of the stored maize. Thus, poor peasant farmers are left with the choice of locally available botanicals as alternatives to chemical pesticides. It is against this backdrop that this study seeks to determine the insecticidal efficacy of essential oils from the leaves of <em>Chenopodium ambrosioides</em> and <em>Cupressus sempervirens</em> together with their 50/50 binary combination against the maize weevil, <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em>, and the fungi: <em>Rhizopus stolonifer</em> and <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> on stored maize. Insect mortality and progeny inhibition and the inhibition of fungal invasion were evaluated. Pesticidal activities of both essential oils increased with ascending dose of application. 200 µL/kg of the binary combination caused 100% mortality within 14 days and it completely inhibited progeny production in the weevil. The mixture of the two oils showed additive effects against the weevils and fungi. The two essential oils in isolation significantly inhibited fungal spore invasion in 21 days of storage although A. flavus was less susceptible than <em>R. stolonifer</em>. Therefore both plants could provide active botanical pesticides against <em>S. zeamais</em> and fungal pests in stored maize.</p> Dobgangha Jacob Langsi Charles Ntungwen Fokunang Christopher Suh Ambindel Wilson Agwanande Tsague Roli Tsatsop Elias Nchiwan Nukenine ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 839 847 10.5073/jka.2018.463.181 Insecticidal contact toxicity of several essential oils against stored product pests https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10808 <p>Results of laboratory bioassays in Petri dishes on evaluation of contact toxicity of <em>Illicium verum, Artemisia absinthium</em> and <em>Abies sibirica</em> essential oils (EOs) against larvae of khapra beetle, <em>Trogoderma granarium</em> Ev., adults of grain weevil, <em>Sitophilus granarius</em> L., and rice weevil, <em>Sitophilus oryzae</em> L., and confused flour beetle, <em>Tribolium confusum</em> Duv., and larvae and adults of the lesser mealworm, <em>Tenebrio molitor</em> L., are presented. EOs commercial samples from retail pharmacy were tested at doses 0.01, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 µl/cm<sup>2</sup>. A treated Petri dish surface treted with acetone was used as a control. The experiment was carried out in triplicate. Mortality of insects was assessed after 1, 3, 6 and 24 hours post exposure. After exposure insects were placed into untreated Petri dishes for 3 days. The main components of the <em>A. absinthium</em> EOs are thujil alcohol (19.65%), phellandrene (16.71%), borneol (12.1%) and thujone (11.55%) was found. The major component of <em>I. verum</em> EOs was anethole (98.64%). Isobornyl acetate (57.25%), a-pinene (13.55%) and limonene (10.62%) were found as the main components of <em>A. sibirica</em> EOs. <em>S. oryzae</em> and <em>S. granarius</em> were most sensitive to each EO. <em>I. verum</em> EOs was the most effective and caused 100% mortality of each insect at the dose 0.25 µl/cm<sup>2</sup>.</p> Petr A. Iakovlev ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 847 851 10.5073/jka.2018.463.182 Toxicity of extracts derived from different parts of cassava plant, <i>Manihot esculenta</i> Crantz to four major coleopteran pests of stored-products https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10809 <p>Fumigant toxicity of insecticidal principles extracted from tuber rind, fresh leaf, fresh leaf with petiole, and dried leaf of cassava (var. M4) was studied against four major stored-product insect pests viz. <em>Sitophilus oryzae</em> (L.), <em>Rhyzopertha dominica</em> (F.), <em>Tribolium castaneum</em> (Herbst) and <em>Callosobruchus chinensis</em> (L.) under laboratory conditions (28±2ºC, Rh. 75±5%). Mortality of the test insects varied with respect to extracts collected from different parts of the plant, and time of exposure. Extract collected from cassava rind recorded the highest toxicity. <em>Callosobruchus chinensis</em> was highly susceptible and showed immediate knockdown effect to the active principles extracted from tuber rind, fresh leaf, fresh leaf with petiole, twig and semi-dried leaf. The extract collected from various parts of plant caused 100% mortality of <em>R. dominica</em> at 1 hour after treatment (HAT), but the same collected from tuber and dried leaves did not show any toxic effect. Mortality of <em>S. oryzae</em> was 100% at 1 HAT with tuber rind extract, but no response was observed from the extract collected from semi-dried leaf, twig, and leaf with petiole. No fumigant action was observed in all the four coleopteran pests exposed to the extract collected from dried leaves. The study revealed that fresh leaf and tuber rind are good sources for the extraction of biofumigant against major coleopteran pests, however dried leaves are unfit for same purpose.</p> Arumughan Jayaprakas Cheruvan L. Ragesh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 851 855 10.5073/jka.2018.463.183 Entomocidal, repellent, antifeedent and growth nhibition efects of different plant extracts against <i>Tribolium castaneum</i> (Herbst) (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10810 <p>In present investigation, toxic, repellent, antifeedent and growth inhibition effects of five different plant extracts: <em>Melia azedarach, Pegnum hermala, Salsola baryosma, Azadirachta indica</em> and <em>Zingiber officinale</em>, were evaluated on different life stages of <em>T. castaneum</em>. The highest mortality (10.14%) was observed with <em>A. indica</em> and the minimum mortality (0.67%) was invoked by <em>Z. officinale</em> treatment. Similarly, <em>A. indica</em> showed highest repellent effect compared to rest of the plants. Feeding deterrence was highest (90.15%) with S. baryosma treatment, followed by P. hermala (84.85%), M. azedarach (80.19%), A. indica (73.48%) and <em>Z. officinale</em> (57.58%). The extracts inhibited the growth of <em>T. castaneum</em>. Inthe case of <em>A. indica</em>, the lowest numbers of larvae (32.67), pupae (16.33) and adults (11.33) emerged at 15% concentration, while the highest emergence of larvae (80.33), pupae (75.00) and adult (71.00) were observed for <em>Z. officinale</em>. The other three plant extracts had moderate regrowth inhibition on the beetle. Overall, <em>A. indica</em> extract was found to be the most effective while, <em>Z. officinale</em> extract was least effective against the beetle. This study can be very helpful in future when the use of plant extracts become common and available to the farmers as an alternative to synthetic pesticides.</p> Mansoor ul Hasan Qurban Ali Sehrish Kanwal Najuf Awais Anjum ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 855 864 10.5073/jka.2018.463.184 Toxicity and repellence of <i>Citrus jambhiri</i> Lush rind essential oil against maize weevil (<i>Sitophilus zeamais</i> Motschulsky 1855) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10811 <p>Rind of matured fruits of <em>Citrus jambhiri</em> Lush was hydro-distilled to obtain essential oil (EO) which was subjected to Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The EO was evaluated for fumigant toxicity (at 27- 107µL/L air) and repellence against maize weevil (<em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> Motschulsky). Area preference methodology was used to evaluate the repellence of the EO at 0.15-0.9 µL/cm<sup>2</sup>, while isopropanol served as control for both bioassays. The experiments were set up in a completely randomized design and data were subjected to analysis of variance and probit analysis. Fifty-two compounds were identified in the EO with the predominant compounds being a-terpineol (8.03%), citral (7.00%), 4-terpineol (6.52%), caryophellene (4.58%), cis-geraniol (4.44%), citronellal (4.38%), ß-bisabolene (4.01%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (4.70%). Others were a- bergamotene (3.74%), lemonol (3.23%), precocene I (3.33%) and ß-copaene (3.09%). Toxicity progressed with EO dose and exposure period and application of EO at 80 and 107µL/L air caused significantly higher mortality (33.75-100.00%) than isopropanol (0.00-22.50%). Lethal time for 50% assayed weevil (LT<sub>50</sub>) for the EO application at 107 µL/L air {7.51 (6.95-8.13) h} was significantly lower than the values obtained for 27 and 53 µL/L air {44.78 (27.49-312.61) and 21.87 (11.91-45.96) h, respectively}. EO caused significantly higher repellence (75.00-90.00%) than control (15.00%) at 24 hours after treatment. The results indicate that <em>C. jambhiri</em> rind EO has prospects as effective biorational formulation for control of maize weevil.</p> Samuel A. Babarinde Lamidi A. Usman Oladele A. Olaniran Timothy A. Adebayo Elizabeth O. Ojutiku Adeyinka K. Adeniyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 864 871 10.5073/jka.2018.463.185 Binary mixture efficacy of NeemAzal and <i>Plectranthus glandulosus</i> leaf powder against cowpea and maize weevils https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10812 <p>The aim of this study was to determine the insecticidal efficacy of mixture of NeemAzal a commercial neem product and <em>Plectranthus glandulosus</em> leaf powder against <em>Callosubruchus maculatus</em> and <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em>. Mixed at various proportions (100 + 0, 75 + 25, 50 + 50, 25 + 75 and 0 +100%, these powders were tested on adult mortality, inhibition of offspring production and their persistence on <em>C. maculatus</em> and <em>S. zeamais</em>. All the mixed NeemAzal and <em>P. glandulosus</em> caused significant mortality to adult <em>C. maculatus</em> and <em>S. zeamais</em>. No significant difference was observed among the mixed powders that were subjected to the three mixture proportions regarding the mortality they caused to the weevils. The mixed 75% NeemAzal + 25%<em> P .glandulosus</em> of powder led to a higher mortality (100%) of both insect species, three (5 g/kg) days post exposure. The three days LC<sub>50</sub> values decreased with ascending proportion of NeemAzal in the mixture from 3.21 g/kg (25% NeemAzal + 75% <em>P. glandulosu</em>s) to 0.24 g/kg (75% NeemAzal + 25% <em>P. glandulosu</em>s) in <em>S. zeamais</em>. In <em>C. maculatus</em>, the opposing effect was observed. The number of F1 progeny produced reduced significantly (P = 0.01) in both insect species with the mixture proportion of botanicals. The mixtures reduced better the adult progeny production than the botanicals applied alone. The 75% <em>P. glandulosus</em> + 25% NeemAzal persisted well on grains up to 180 days for all dose levels. Powder from NeemAzal and <em>P. glandulosus</em> leaves stand as good candidates to protect maize and cowpea against the infestation of <em>S. zeamais</em> and <em>C. maculatus</em> respectively during storage. Mixing these products could not be advantageous since the binary mixture gave similar result as when they were applied alone.</p> Katamssadan H. Tofel Cornel Adler Elias Nchiwan Nukenine ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 871 878 10.5073/jka.2018.463.186 Effects of chlorpyrifos-methyl and pirimiphos-methyl applied with 5°C temperature on <i>Sitophilus oryzae</i> (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in wheat grain https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10813 <p>The effects of the insecticides chlorpyrifos-methyl and pirimiphos-methyl in combination with low temperature treatment at 5°C were tested in the laboratory to improve the existing pest management programs for <em>S. oryzae</em> control. Adults were released into wheat grain pretreated with three insecticide doses: 0.08, 0.12 and 0.16 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos-methyl, and 0.125, 0.19 and 0.25 mg/kg of pirimiphos-methyl, and exposed to 5°C temperature over intervals of 5, 6, 7 and 8 days. Mortality after low temperature only, insecticides only, and their combinations, was assessed after 1, 2, 7 and 14 days of recovery at 25±1°C and 60±5% r.h., as well as their impact on F1 progeny production/reduction (PR) after 8 weeks. The combined application of 0.16 mg/kg chlorpyrifosmethyl and 5°C temperature (5-7 days of exposure) caused a significantly higher mortality of <em>S. oryzae</em> after 1, 2, 7 and 14 days of recovery than the activity of low temperature alone, as well as the combined application of 0.12 mg/kg chlorpyrifos-methyl and 5°C after 7 and 14 days of recovery. Adults mortality and progeny reduction of <em>S. oryzae</em> was =92% after 14 days of recovery from an interaction of 0.16 mg/kg dose of chlorpyrifos-methyl and exposure for 6 days to 5°C, as well as all doses in combination with 7 days exposure to 5°C. Combined application of 0.25 mg/kg pirimiphos-methyl and 5, 6 and 7 days of exposure to 5°C caused a significantly higher mortality of <em>S. oryzae</em> after 7, 2 and 1 day of recovery, respectively, compared to temperature-only exposure. High mortality (91-95%) and progeny reduction &gt;92% were caused by the same pirimiphos-methyl rate in combination with 6 and 7 days of exposure to 5°C after 7 days of recovery as the combination of 5, 6 and 7 days of exposure to 5°C after 14 days of recovery.</p> Marijana Pražić Golić Goran Andrić Petar Kljajić ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 878 885 10.5073/jka.2018.463.187 Residual efficacy of deltamethrin applied on porous and non-porous surfaces against <i>Sitophilus granarius</i> (L.), <i>Plodia interpunctella</i> (Hübner) and <i>Blattella germanica</i> (L.) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10814 <p>Residual efficacy of the insecticide deltamethrin, EC formulation with 25 g/L AI + 225 g/L PBO (synergist piperonyl butoxide), against lab populations of <em>S. granarius</em> and <em>P. interpunctella</em> by applying product water solutions (12.5 mg AI/m<sup>2</sup>) to porous surface, and against <em>B. germanica</em> by applying them to non-porous surface, was investigated in laboratory (at 25±1°C and 55-60% r.h.). The mortality of cockroach adults on deposits aged 0, 14, 30 and 45 days was estimated after 30 minutes of their contact with the treated surfaces, and additional 24 h and 48 h of recovery, while the mortality of stored-product insects (adults or larvae) on 0, 7, 14 and 30 days old deposits was estimated after 2, 7 and 14 days of exposure to treated surfaces and additional 7 days of recovery. Mortality of cockroaches in all variants was 100%, except on 45 days old deposit and after 24 h of recovery, when it was 97%. Deltamethrin caused 0% weevil mortality after 2 days of exposure to deposits of all ages (0-30 days), while <em>P. interpunctella</em> larval mortality was 87-93%. However, mortality was 100% after 7 and 14 days of weevil/moth exposure in all variants of deposit ages and/or additional 7 days of recovery. The results show that deltamethrin applied to porous and non-porous surfaces is a highly effective insecticide for weevil/moth and cockroach control, and it showed a good residual activity for up to 30 and 45 days, respectively.</p> Petar Kljajić Goran Andrić Marijana Pražić Golić ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 885 891 10.5073/jka.2018.463.188 Insecticidal efficacy of abamectin against red flour beetle <i>Tribolium castaneum</i> (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): influence of dose, exposure interval, relative humidity and temperature https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10815 A. Guray Ferizli Sadi Pamuk Mevlut Emekci ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 891 891 10.5073/jka.2018.463.189 The effectiveness of Spinetoram against red flour beetle, <i>Tribolium castaneum</i> (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10816 Muhsin Yunus Derici A, Guray Ferizil Mevlut Emekci ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 891 892 10.5073/jka.2018.463.190 The effectiveness of Spinetoram against maize weevil, <i>Sitophilus zeamais</i> Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): influence of dose, exposure interval, and temperature https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10817 Tugba Bayer Mevlut Emekci A. Guray Ferizil ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 892 892 10.5073/jka.2018.463.191 Postharvest knowledge, perceptions and practices of African small-scale maize and sorghum farmers https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10818 <p>Due to a single annual food production season in southern Africa, small-scale maize and sorghum farmers store grain until the next harvest. The farmers’ postharvest knowledge, perceptions and practices (KPP) is important in reducing postharvest losses (PHLs); a key component of household food and nutritional security. Using random sampling, 310 farmers from two districts of Zimbabwe with contrasting agroecologies and agricultural systems (maize and sorghum) were interviewed to assess their KPP on post-production aspects. Maize and sorghum grain were stored in new and recycled polypropylene bags (93.5% and 42.6%) placed in ordinary rooms (44.5% and 27.1%), brick store houses (28.4% and 54.2%) and traditional huts (23.2% and 16.1), respectively. Farmers recognised field infestation as important source of insect infestation in sorghum (60%) but not in maize (21.3%). Synthetic commercial grain protectants were used more on maize (90.2%) than on sorghum grain (63.2%). Majority of farmers (&gt; 75%) perceived these insecticides as both effective and safe to use. Farmers’ household reserved grain ran out before the next harvest and was supplemented through buying grain or mealie-meal with cash, or exchanging grain with labour or livestock. Postharvest information and training were scarce in both systems. The study provides important information to extensionists, policy makers, development agents and researchers for reviewing and benchmarking extension services and farmer training requirements to effectively accelerate progress towards PHL reduction and contribute to household and national food and nutritional security.</p> Honest Machekano Brighton M. Mvumi Richard Rwafa Susan J. Richardson Kageler Tinashe Nyabako ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 893 900 10.5073/jka.2018.463.192 Evaluation of five storage technologies to preserve quality composition of maize in Nigerian markets https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10819 <p>Maize needs to be stored using good and safe postharvest management measures that will maintain the quality as at harvest. Insects and moisture must be controlled in storage to ensure quality and methods to achieve this, such as the use of reduced-risk measures were evaluated in this study, conducted February–December 2016. The efficacy of Bularafa diatomaceous earth (DE), Piper guineense (Botanical), PICS bags, ZeroFly<sup>®</sup> bags and permethrin (Rambo™) in preserving maize quality in Nigerian markets was assessed. A sixth treatment comprised maize in untreated polypropylene bags. Study locations were in four markets in Ibadan, Ilorin and Oyo towns. Each market had a storehouse, which contained experimental 100-kg bags. In each storehouse, each technology had six bags, which were all sampled monthly except in PICS treatment where six bags were destructively sampled every four months. Data taken in February) and December) showed that quality of maize in PICS bags was best having the lowest percentage of insect damaged kernels, numerical based (%IDKNB), — 0.01 ± 0.01and 0.02 ± 0.01; %IDKWB— weight based were 0.00 ± 0.00 and 0.00 ± 0.00); % weight loss (0.01 ± 0.01; 0.01 ± 0.01), % number of discolored maize (0.02 ± 0.01; 0.01 ± 0.01) and % seed germination (96.77 ± 0.53; 98.37 ± 0.35) respectively. Treated and untreated maize had mean aflatoxin levels below limit of detection of 5 ppb in February and December (0.47 and 1.66), respectively and their proximate composition were within ranges reported in literature. By December, untreated maize had the highest %IDKNB (1.42 ± 0.22), %IDKWB (1.07 ± 0.18), % weight loss (0.36 ± 0.07) and lowest % seed germination (88.09 ± 0.98) when compared to the evaluated storage technologies Therefore, these five technologies can be incorporated in integrated management of storage insect pests in storehouses.</p> Grace Otitodun Adeola Ala Samuel Nwaubani Mobolaji Omobowale Moses Ogundare Grace Abel Kehinde Ajao Jafar Braimah Akhere Olenloa Olumuylwa Kolayemi Jonathan Ogwumike George Opit Klein Ileleji Samuel G. McNeill ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 900 909 10.5073/jka.2018.463.193 Evaluation of the suitability and optimal use of postharvest storage bag technologies and a combination thereof for maize storage in Nigeria. https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10820 <p>The severity of postharvest losses varies considerably depending on storage method and prevalence of storage insect pests known to bore into storage bags. Polypropylene (PP) bags used by smallholder farmers in Nigeria do not provide effective protection for stored produce due to insect boring activities. Deltamethrin incorporated polypropylene, ZeroFly<sup>®</sup> (ZF) and ZeroFly<em>®</em> Hermetic Storage Bags are technologies with potential to improve protection of stored food commodities against insect attack. Therefore, a 12-month study was conducted in Ibadan, Nigeria to determine the suitability and potential of combined postharvest bag technologies involving ZeroFly<sup>®</sup> (hermetic and non-hermetic) bags for smallholder farmers when exposed to Sitophilus zeamais and Prostephanus truncatus infestation pressure. Cleaned but un-fumigated 50-kg lots of maize were used to fill bags in each of the following 8 treatments — PP and ZF bags alone, diatomaceous earth-treated maize in PP and ZF bags, single and double hermetic liners in ZF bags, single hermetic liner in PP bags and lastly PICS bags. Results obtained over a 12-month period showed infestation by <em>S. zeamais, Tribolium castaneum, Cryptolestes ferrugineus</em> and <em>Liposcelis</em> spp. and abundance of insect increased with storage period in PP and ZF bags without liner. The percentages of insect damaged kernels by number (IDK) were higher in PP and ZF bags without liner and were 5.4 and 16.9%, respectively; in ZeroFly bags with hermetic liners, these values were ~ 0.5%. The PP and ZF bags without liner also had higher weight loss values of 1.4 and 6.7%, respectively compared with ZeroFly bags with hermetic liners and PICS bags which had a relatively lower weight loss of =0.2%. These results indicate that the ZeroFly Hermetic bag mitigates insect infestations, thereby offering a suitable alternative towards achieving significant reduction in postharvest losses during storage.</p> Shekinat Ajao Kehinde Popoola Mobolaji Omobowale Adeola Ala Georgina Bingham George Opit ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 910 920 10.5073/jka.2018.463.194 Insecticide treated packaging for the control of stored product insects https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10821 <p>Improper or poor post-harvest handling and storage of stored grains contributes significantly to product loss, and bagged stored grain presents an option for safe storage and handling. Bagged grain is intended to maintain quality and safety, while protecting it from infestations. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of deltamethrin-treated packaging material on adults and larvae of common stored product pests. Adults or larvae of several species of stored product insects were exposed to deltamethrin-treated packaging for time intervals ranging from 1 h to 4 weeks. The percentage of affected <em>Prostephanus truncatus, Callosobruchus maculatus</em> and <em>Rhyzopertha dominica</em> adults was &lt; 98% after 60 minutes of exposure to treated packaging. Mortality of adult <em>Trogoderma granarium</em> was about 33% after 1 day of exposure, and increased to 93% after 7 day of exposure. Direct mortality of <em>T. granarium</em> larvae exposed to the deltamethrin-treated packaging for 8 h was about 15%, but increased to 50% when larvae were exposed for 72 h. <em>Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis</em>, and <em>Trogoderma inclusum</em> larvae continually exposed to the deltamethrin-treated packaging resulted in &gt; 96% larval death within 1-2 weeks.The major primary stored product insects were highly susceptible to the deltamethrin-treated storage bags, but there was variation in susceptibility between species and life stages tested. The deltamethrin-treated storage bags can offer protection of bagged grains and be used as a preventative measure to reduce infestations during storage.</p> Deanna S. Scheff Frank H. Arthur James F. Campbell ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 920 924 10.5073/jka.2018.463.195 Field studies with insecticide treated packaging for the control of stored product insects https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10822 Georgina Bingham Grace Otitodun Enoch A. Osekere George Opit ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 924 924 10.5073/jka.2018.463.196 On-farm comparison of different postharvest storage technologies for effectiveness in pest management in a maize farming system of Tanzania Central Corridor https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10823 <p>Seven methods for storing maize were compared with traditional practice of storing maize in polypropylene bags. Twenty farmers managed the experiment under their prevailing conditions for 30 weeks. Stored grain was assessed for damage every six weeks. The dominant storage insect pests identified were the Maize weevil (<em>Sitophilus zeamais</em>) and the Red flour beetle (<em>Tribolium castaneum</em>). There was no significant difference (F = 87.09; P &lt; 0.0001) in insect control and grain damage between hermetic storage and fumigation with insecticides. However, the insecticide treated polypropylene yarn (ZeroFly<sup>®</sup>) did not control insect infestation of grain for the experimental period under farmers’ management. Grain damage was significantly lower in hermetic storage and fumigated grain than ZeroFly<sup>®</sup> and polypropylene bags without fumigation. No significant difference in grain damage was found between airtight treatment alone and when combined with the use of insecticides. During storage, <em>S. zeamais</em> was predominant and could be of more economic importance than <em>T. castaneum</em> as far as maize damage is concerned. Even though ZeroFly<sup>®</sup>, and polypropylene bags without grain treatment did not control storage pests, farmers still prefered this cheap technology. Hermetic storage techniques can be recommended to farmers without the use of insecticides provided they are inexpensive, and the proper application of technologies is ensured.</p> Adebayo B. Abass Martin Fischler Kurt Schneider Shamim Daudi Audifas Gaspar Janine Rüst Esther Kabula Gabriel Ndunguru Daniel Madulu David Msola ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 924 931 10.5073/jka.2018.463.197 Quality and mycotoxin contamination of maize stored in air-tight containers in rural farm stores: data from two semi-arid zones in Kenya and Tanzania https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10824 Christopher Mutungi Audifas Gaspar Esther Kabula Adebayo Abass ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 931 931 10.5073/jka.2018.463.198 On-farm maize insect pest and mycotoxin levels in Ghana https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10825 <p>Maize post-harvest losses are perennial in Ghana but reliable comparative information on on-farm losses of maize produced in the Middle and Northern Belts of Ghana is lacking. Two studies were conducted from September 2015 to February 2016 to identify factors contributing to on-farm losses of maize in these two Belts. In the Northern Belt, the study was conducted in six communities including Adubiyili, Diari, Pong-Tamale, Savelugu, Toroyili and Zamnayili; and in the Middle Belt, in Ejura, Sekyedumase and Amantin communities. Moisture content, percent weight loss, percent insect damaged kernels (IDK) on numerical basis (%IDKnb) and percent IDK by weight basis (%IDKwb), insect pest abundance, and mycotoxin levels were estimated. Moisture content values of maize at pre-harvest and heaping stages in all nine communities were below 15%. <em>Sitophilus zeamais, Sitotroga cerealella, Cathartus quadricollis</em>, and <em>Carpophilus dimidiatus</em> were found to attack maize onfarm in communities in the Middle Belt, but no adult insect pests were collected on pre-harvested maize in the Northern Belt. The %IDKnb values on-farm in all nine communities were &lt; 2% per 250 g. Mean aflatoxin levels below 15 ppb were obtained from pre-harvested maize in both regions but levels above 15 ppb were obtained from heaped maize on-farm. Fumonisin levels of maize were below 4 ppm on pre-harvested and in heaped maize in both regions. Results show that heaping maize on-farm increases aflatoxin levels beyond the acceptable threshold level and should not be practiced.</p> James K. Danso Naomi Manu Enoch A. Osekre George P. Opit Paul R. Armstrong Frank H. Arthur James F. Campbell George N. Mbata Samuel G. McNeill ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 463 931 933 10.5073/jka.2018.463.199 Insect pests of post-harvest storage in promising crop sectors in Burkina Faso: current concerns and prospects for solutions https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10826 <p>Effective post-harvest management of crops could significantly contribute to food security by improving the availability and quality of food. In Burkina Faso, new concerns have emerged as a result of the growing importance accorded to sesame (<em>Sesamum indica</em>), roselle (<em>Hibiscus sabdariffa</em>), "zamnè" (<em>Acacia macrostachya</em>), and sorghum (<em>Sorghum bicolor</em>). The insects identified as storage pests on these crops belong mainly to the order Coleoptera and families of Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae and Bostrichidae are the most representative. The studies carried out allowed a better knowledge of the pests as well as their economic importance. Losses due to insects, estimated up to 100% depending on the crop and protection methods used, are frequently observed after a few months of grain storage. Several alternatives to the use of chemicals including biological control, biopesticides and hermetic storage are being promoted. The triple bagging technology is one of the promising alternatives that can adapt to the post-harvest storage of a wide range of crops. Despite its proven effectiveness for several commodities, there is need to verify its efficiency against a diversity of insect pests with differing behaviour and evolution. The importance of the challenges is such that the strategies to be implemented must be conceived in a comprehensive, integrated approach, even at the regional scale.</p> Antoine Sanon Marcelin Yamkoulga Jean Christophe Koussoube Antoine Waongo Issa Ouédraogo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 463 934 940 10.5073/jka.2018.463.200 Abundance and diversity of arthropod pests infesting stored maize in smallholder farmers and traders systems highlight critical points for pest management in Uganda https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10827 <p>Knowledge of the diversity of arthropod pests infesting stored maize value chain in Uganda is very scanty to guide the development and implementation of management strategies. From a cross-sectional study conducted in north western, eastern and central regions of Uganda during 2017/2018, the diversity and economic importance of storage arthropod pests of maize in farmer storage, trader/retailer stores in villages and townships, and in milling and processing facilities is presented. A total of 11 insect pests were recorded feeding internally and externally on stored maize. <em>Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus zeamais</em> and <em>Sitophilus oryzae</em> were the primary insect pests followed by <em>Tribolium</em> spp., <em>Cryptolestes</em> spp., <em>Sitotroga cerealella</em>, and <em>Oryzaephilus mercator</em>. The highest insect diversity and damage was recorded when maize was stored with husked cobs in farmers’ houses, a practice farmers use to store seed for next planting. Meanwhile the distribution pattern of the pests in trader/retailer stores in villages and townships, and in milling facilities indicate waves of insect infestation occurring with stocks of grain being brought in storage. The maize grain at the peak of harvesting was in excellent quality but later stocks brought in several months after harvest were infested with diverse insects. Re-drying at farm level and use of chemical dusts at trader/retailer stores in villages and townships were the most common pest management practice. However, the lack of a differentiated market, whereby better quality would fetch premium price, discourages investment to reduce postharvest losses. Subsequently, most farmers sold their grains immediately after harvest and most traders sold their stocks as soon as there was the next bulk buyer. The critical point for pest management is at farm level where pest diversity and damage is greatest, and at the village/ township stores where the grain may be held in anticipation of improvement in price.</p> Herbert Talwana Mahafuzi Masiko Stephen Dramani Francis Edimu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 463 941 944 10.5073/jka.2018.463.201 Potential of essential oils from four Cameroonian aromatic plants used in integrated protection of stored products programs https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10828 <p>The efficacy of essential oils extracted from fruits of <em>Piper capense</em> and <em>Xylopia parviflora</em>, and roots of <em>Echinops giganteus</em> and <em>Mondia whitei</em> were evaluated against <em>Acanthoscelides obtectus</em> and fungi isolated from bean seeds in laboratory conditions in Cameroon. The essential oils were extracted by water-distillation and their chemical composition identified by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Toxicity assays of essential oils against <em>A. obtectus</em> were carried out by fumigation in which insect pests were exposed fumes of the essential oils, and mortality recorded after 6, 12, and 24 hours. Additionally, the toxicity by contact of the essential oils was evaluated through coating grains with essential oils or impregnating the essential oils onto the filter paper, allowing the insects to physically get in contact with the essential oil, and assessing weevil mortality recorded after 1, 2, 3, and 4 days. The essential oils from <em>P. capense</em> and <em>X. parviflora</em> consisted mainly of hydrocarbon monoterpenes (56.5% and 50.0% respectively), whereas the essential oils from <em>E. giganteus</em> was mostly constituted of sesquiterpenes (94.3%) in which the tricyclic compounds are more abundant. A major compound identified in the essential oil from <em>M. whitei</em> was 2-hydroxy- 4-methoxy-benzaldehyde (81%). The essential oil from <em>X. parviflora</em> was the most effective as contact and fumigant against <em>A. obtectus</em>, causing 100% mortality within 1 day at low lethal concentrations. On the other hand, the essential oil from <em>M. whitei</em> exhibited the best anti-fungal activity. These essential oils could play an important role in pest protection of stored beans and reduce the risks associated with use of synthetic insecticides especially in low income small holder farming systems.</p> Leon Azefack Tapondjou Verlaine Woguem Hilaire Macaire Womeni ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 463 945 952 10.5073/jka.2018.463.202 Sustained effective use of phosphine in stored product protection in India: Role of UPL Limited https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10829 Ujjwal Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 463 952 952 10.5073/jka.2018.463.203 Recent developments in the global application of ECO2FUME<sup>®</sup> and VAPORPH3OS<sup>®</sup> phosphine fumigants https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10830 <p>ECO2FUME<sup>®</sup> (2% phosphine, 98% CO<sub>2</sub> by weight) and VAPORPH3OS<sup>®</sup> (99.3% phosphine average by weight) are cylinderized gas formulations of phosphine that have achieved significant growth in commercial applications for the disinfestation of food and non-food commodities in the last two decades. The expansion in the global application of these two cylinderized phosphine fumigants is driven by increasing concern for safety, efficacy, unreacted powdered residue and disposal associated with aluminium phosphide tablets, which are promoted as alternatives to methyl bromide, and the concern of insect resistance to phosphine in both developed and developing countries. This paper describes recent developments in the global application of ECO2FUME<sup>®</sup> and VAPORPH3OS<sup>®</sup> in terms of commercial in-transit fumigation of grains and logs in ships, fumigation of export distiller’s dried grain with solubles (DDGS) in containers and shiphold, best practices in the management of phosphine resistance of insects in grains, and establishment and application of quarantine and preshipment (QPS) phosphine fumigation protocols for selected fresh fruits, vegetables, dried fruits and cut flowers as an alternative to methyl bromide. The growing issue of powdered residue from unspent aluminium phosphine tablets and the use of cylinderized phosphine as an effective solution are discussed.</p> Justin Tumambing Courtney Christenson Arda Taner Dino Amoroso ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 463 952 959 10.5073/jka.2018.463.204 Effects of <i>Myristica fragrans</i> and <i>Alpinia conchigera</i> oils against <i>Callosobruchus maculatus</i> https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10831 Duangsamorn Suthisut Rungsima Kengkanpanich Pavinee Noochanapal Pananya Pobsuk Saruta Sitthichaiyakul ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 463 959 959 10.5073/jka.2018.463.205 Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of cinamic acid esters isolated from <i>Ocimum gratissimum</i> L. and <i>Vitallaria paradoxa</i> leaves against <i>Tribolium castaneum</i> Hebst (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10832 Thomas Buxton Shiori Takahashi Akpe Eddy-Doh Ebenezer Oduro Owusu Chul-Sa Kim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 463 960 960 10.5073/jka.2018.463.206 Assai (<i>Euterpe oleracea</i> Mart.) fruit: Green method development by Andiroba oil (<i>Carapa guianencis</i> L.) for Hemiptera control https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10833 Christiano W. R. Ribeiro Carlos E. S. Soares Milena O. Dutra Marco Dominici Barbara C. F. Ferreira Vildes M. Scussel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 463 960 961 10.5073/jka.2018.463.207 Colour changes in pulses fumigated with different metal phosphide formulations https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10834 <p>Many phosphine-emitting products are used globally to control insect pests in dried vegetables, grains and pulses. However, variation in phosphide formulations is associated with colour change in many pulses. This study evaluated the effect of fumigation using Mg<sub>3</sub>P<sub>2</sub> containing ammonium carbamate; AlP containing no ammonium carbamate and pure ammonium carbamate on colour of diferrent pulses. Different pulses showed different reactions towards fumigation with phosphine. A distinctly darker discolouration was observed in broad beans and lentils when fumigated with ammonium carbamate containing Mg<sub>3</sub>P<sub>2</sub> and pure ammonium carbamate, whereas there were no apparent colour changes in white kidney beans, soybeans and green peas. The use of ammonium carbamate-free AlP resulted in no changes in any of the pulses. Therefore, formulation type of the phosphine product plays a major role in the visible colour change of the pulses.</p> Gerhard Jakob Renate Steuerwald Dennis Ryman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 463 961 963 10.5073/jka.2018.463.208 The Postharvest Education Foundation’s role in reducing postharvest losses https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10835 <p>The Postharvest Education Foundation (PEF) was founded to address postharvest losses through education and training. Postharvest expertisewas identified as a key weakness in many developing countries. The PEF provides innovative programs that motivate and empower people to reduce food losses and waste. At the heart of the PEF is a structured e-learning program that provides a practical curriculum to address the causes of postharvest losses, as well as methods to minimize these losses for horticultural crops and staple foods. E-learning is an efficient and cost-effective way to reach interested parties globally, and keeping costs low enables PEF to train and mentor a large number of candidates in developing countries. The curriculum entails several assignments and participants can conduct these assignments on a crop of their choice, making the training relevant to their situations. Most of the 154 people who have completed the program have in turn trained hundreds of farmers, traders and marketers in their own regions inhandling fresh produce, crop storage, and food processing, thereby delivering maximum impact with minimum input. In addition to its e-learning program, the PEF provides education on improved technical practices along the postharvest chain and on extension education. This training includes a wide range of topics from measuring postharvestlosses to designing demonstrations on storage, pest management, packaging and temperature management, from building and using low cost cold storage systems to calculating return on investment of changes in handling practices. The PEF also provides advice on designing postharvest training and service centers. This information is available on the organization’s website. In addition, mentoring is provided through social media sites, continuing with the philosophy of providing distance education and training.</p> Deirdre Holcroft Lisa Kitinoja ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 463 963 968 10.5073/jka.2018.463.209 Evaluation of plastic and steel bins for protection of stored maize against Insect Infestation in Ghana https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10836 <p>Maize is a staple food in Ghana where there is ever increasing demand for its use to also support poultry and livestock production. However, post-harvest loss of maize is high in Ghana. This study evaluated the effectiveness of plastic and steel bins as bulk storage structures to reduce maize post-harvest loss in Ejura, Ghana during the period from February 2016 to January 2017. Maize pre-disinfested with a solar biomass hybrid dryer was stored in the following treatments: i. a white 7-ton plastic bin filled with untreated maize, ii. agreen 7-ton plastic bin filled with untreated maize, iii.a 6-ton Kikapu steel bin filled with untreated maize, iv. six 50-kg polypropylene (PP) bags filled with maize treated with Betallic Super (80 g pirimiphos-methyl and 15 g permethrin per liter as an emulsifiable concentrate (EC)), and v. six 50-kg PP bags filled with untreated maize ascontrol. Moisture content, insect pests, insect damaged kernels (IDK), grain weight loss, aflatoxin and fumonisin levels data were collected monthly. <em>Sitophilus zeamais, Tribolium castaneum, Cathartus quadricollis,</em> and <em>Cryptolestes ferrugineus</em> were the dominant insect species collected from maize samples. At the end of 12 months of storage, % IDK in the control was &gt;17% while IDK values in the other treatments were &lt;3%. Mean grain weight losses of &lt;1% were recorded in the bin treatments. Mycotoxin levels in the control were above the allowable threshold of 15 ppb. Our data suggest that use of plastic and steel bins has potential to reduce post-harvest loss of maize during storage.</p> Augustine Bosomtwe Enoch A. Osekre George P. Opit George N. Mbata Paul R. Armstrong Frank H. Arthur James F. Campbell Evans P. Nsiah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 463 968 972 10.5073/jka.2018.463.210 Insect infestation and quality loss of major stored products in Ghana https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10837 Charles Adarkwah Jacob P. Anankware Daniel Obeng-Ofori Christian Ulrichs Matthias Schöller ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-13 2018-11-13 463 972 972 10.5073/jka.2018.463.211 Star Wars in food stores – automated detection, determination and laser elimination of insect pests https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10912 <p>In a project supported by funds of the German government (PT BLE), we test a mobile camera system, scanning surfaces in storage warehouses or food processing industry. If insects are detected they are compared with morphological data in store to decide if the detected individual is a target pest. In case a target pest is determined with high probability, a laser beam is directed to the target to eliminate the insect by heat. The concept is to develop a system that is able to learn and identify more and more different species over time. First aims of the project are to improve reliability of species detection and identification in contrast to the grain with different light spectra and camera parameters. Reaction tests under different light conditions of the two exemplary insects grain weevil <em>Sitophilus granarius</em> (Col., Curculionidae) and Indianmeal moth <em>Plodia interpunctella</em> (Lepid., Pyralidae) will be carried out. Further the project will investigate laser beam wavelengths and intensities not damaging surfaces and items beneath or next to targets. The system could be utilized to support IPM in well-sealed structures for storage or processing of food and feed stuffs.</p> Cornel Adler Gunnar Böttger Christian Hentschel Dirk Höpfner Kirko Große Peter Kern Jan Zorn ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-13 2018-11-13 463 973 975 10.5073/jka.2018.463.212 Web-based phosphine fumigation monitoring with active sensor validation confirms lethality in stored grains https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10913 <p>The predominant measurement technologies for fumigation gases over the past 60 years include colorimetric tubes, photoionization detectors, and electrochemical sensors. Their limitations and inaccuracies are well documented. Spectros Instruments has shown non-dispersive infrared monitoring (NDIR) to be a superior analytical tool for the practical measurement of fumigation gases as shown in Table 1. Any compliant fumigation monitor must be accurate, reliable and affordable. Stored Product Protection has additional requirements in remote regions such as Central China and Western Australia. In these cases, the value of real time access via the internet to fumigation data collected with NDIR Technology from a remote location adds heretofore unknown benefits. Allocation of manpower and materials resources are optimized by access to information about fumigant gas levels in grain storages via the internet. Data is automatically transferred to a central database that can be accessed in real-time from any location with internet access. Intelligent monitors with built-in diagnostics tracking barometric pressure, temperature, sample flows and detector voltages are described. This data collection, data warehousing and reporting platform maintains measurement traceability to certified compliance with secure, encrypted electronic notebook format. Knowing REAL phosphine concentrations allows informed decisions to be made to achieve required CxT and avoid situations leading to target pest phosphine resistance.</p> D. Glennon A. Carvello S. Ottmar C. Sweet ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-08 2018-11-08 463 975 978 10.5073/jka.2018.463.213 Qualitative discussion about reducing grain postharvest loss with mobile storage in Ghana, West Africa https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10914 <p>Farming sustainably and protecting gross harvest production correctly provides growers with “health care, school fees and peace-of-mind” (net benefits). Reducing Postharvest and input loss sustains the components of agriculture’s triple-bottom-line which are “accessible nutrition, reduced green-house emissions, and foreign exchange reserves”. Lacking storage that stops grain PHL, agriculture suffers critical problems like the Aspergillus fungi that leaves grain contaminated with invisible aflatoxin that growers cannot consume or market. The objective of the Ghana pilot study was to understand why new ideas/findings like, applying biologicals to the soil before harvest, gross production inputs, virtual markets and especially the spread of stationary grain warehouses have failed to improve the net benefits of farming or agricultures’ triple-bottomline in sub-Saharan Africa. Qualitative comparison methods were used to identify roadblocks to improvement as scientific monitoring and storage eliminate grain Postharvest loss on the drylands in many parts of the world. Observations suggest net benefits are being ignored as reviews and assessments of primitive or council storage exchange scientific rigor for Stationary Warehouse Prejudice. Scientific rigor illuminates how the qualitative cost of aflatoxin, and quantitative expense of pests, recycling plastic, and empty stationary warehouses impact enduser- cost per unit stored per month. We conclude that Postharvest loss is expensive, and that relatively inexpensive mobile metal storage assets would improve net benefits and the triple-bottom-line.</p> William Lanier Wahabu Salifu Daniel Parker ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-08 2018-11-08 463 978 990 10.5073/jka.2018.463.214 Utility of biotechnology based decision making tools in postharvest grain pest management: An Australian case study https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10915 <p>A major concern for the Australian grain industry in recent years is the constant threat of resistance to the key disinfestant phosphine in a range of stored grain pests. The need to maintain the usefulness of phosphine and to contain the development of resistance are critical to international market access for Australian grain. Strong levels of resistance have already been established in major pests including the lesser grain borer, <em>Rhyzopertha dominica</em> (F.), the red flour beetle, <em>Tribolium castaneum</em> (Herbst), and most recently in the rusty grain beetle <em>Cryptolestes ferrugineus</em> (Stephens). As a proactive integrated resistance management strategy, new fumigation protocols are being developed in the laboratory and verified in large-scale field trials in collaboration with industry partners. To aid this development, we have deployed advanced molecular diagnostic tools to accurately determine the strength and frequency of key phosphine resistant insect pests and their movement within a typical Australian grain value chain. For example, two major bulk storage facilities based at Brookstead and Millmerran in southeast Queensland, Australia, were selected as main nodes and several farms and feed mills located in and around these two sites at a scale of 25 to 100 km radius were selected and surveyed. We determined the type, pattern, frequency as well as the distribution of resistance alleles accurately for two major pests, <em>R. dominica</em> and <em>T. castaneum</em>. Overall, this information along with the phenotypic data, provide a basis for designing key intervention strategies in managing resistance problems in the study area.</p> Manoj K. Nayak Rajeswaran Jagadeesan Nisa S. Nath Gregory J. Daglish Virgine Singarayan David I. Schlipalius Hervoika Pavic Robin Reid Paul R. Ebert ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-08 2018-11-08 463 990 995 10.5073/jka.2018.463.215 Australia’s On-Farm Grain Storage Extension Project – a national initiative improving stored grain pest management and maintaining phosphine fumigation efficacy on-farm for the Australian grains industry. https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10916 <p>Phosphine’s continued use in Australia to control grain insect pests in on-farm and central storage systems is threatened through increased resistance in both frequency and strength in target insect pests. Effective fumigation combined with best practice integrated pest management is essential to the sustainability of grain biosecurity, food safety, quality assurance and market access for Australian post-harvest grain systems. <br>The National Stored Grain Extension Program (NSGEP) is an industry funded initiative developed to facilitate best practice in grain storage management within Australia’s grains industry. The NGSEP uses a multi approach engagement strategy and a variety of adult learning principles and training techniques aimed at increasing awareness and knowledge to build capacity and support to enable farmers and industry to manage their grain storage systems and meet best practice and market requirements. These include: training workshops, field days, practical demonstrations, industry forums, multi-media and website development and building networks with grower groups, government agencies and agribusiness. <br>Various evaluation methods have shown that awareness and adoption of best practice in on-farm grain storage management has increased. Key outcomes include increased knowledge in insect identification and skills development and practice change in the management of grain hygiene, aeration, phosphine application, silo testing and planning of storage systems. <br>The NSGEP contributes to the positive on-going changes observed in Australia’s on-farm grain storage systems, primarily through the specialized extension network of information, support and training provided that is highly regarded and in demand. It plays an instrumental role in building capacity and maintaining phosphine fumigation efficacy in the Australian grains industry.</p> Peter Botta Judy Bellati Catherine Botta Chris Warrick Phil Burill Ben White ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-08 2018-11-08 463 995 998 10.5073/jka.2018.463.216 Temporal and spatial patterns in aerosol insecticide droplet distribution: Modifying application strategies to improve coverage and efficacy https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10919 <p>With the phase-out of methyl bromide, treatment of food facilities with aerosol insecticides as part of management programs has increased. The physical layout of the structure, the distribution of equipment and other items within the space, and the application method and location may all cause spatial variation in how the insecticide is deposited, which can result in areas with insufficient or excessive amounts of insecticide applied. The impact of aerosol insecticide application position and dispersal method/formulation on the distribution of droplets was evaluated using a series of applications within the same flour mill room. The spatial pattern of droplet distribution and the effect of treatment on bioassay insects (<em>Tribolium confusum</em> Jacquelin DuVal) was evaluated. There was variation in aerosol concentration and droplet size distributions within room and application position had an impact on the spatial pattern of aerosol droplets. The further away and more obstructed by structural features a location was the lower the aerosol concentration, but concentration was also lower to the side and behind the release point. Evaluation of the temporal pattern in droplet deposition shows that most larger droplets settle out of the air relatively quickly, supporting that idea that shorter shutdown times are be possible. Efficacy was correlated with droplet concentration. The overall conclusion is that there can be considerable variation in distribution of aerosol insecticides and as a result considerable potential for improvement in the effectiveness of these applications.</p> James F. Campbell Frank H. Arthur Daniel Brabec Deanna Scheff ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-08 2018-11-08 463 998 1002 10.5073/jka.2018.463.217 Technical improvement of the Detia Degesch Phosphine Tolerance Test Kit https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10920 <p>Phosphine is the most important commonly used fumigant for the control of stored product insects in warehouses and processing facilities globally. However, the improper and extensive use has led to reduced susceptibility to phosphine for several insect species and strains in many parts of the world. To evaluate and quantify this phenomenon, Detia Degesch developed the Detia Degesch Phosphine Tolerance Test Kit (DDPTTK) more than 10 years ago. The use of DDPTTK is based on the exposure of the insects on a high concentration of phosphine (e.g. 3000 ppm) for short exposure periods (e.g. 8-15 min). This kit can be used on site by the fumigation and food industry, and can provide immediate results on the tolerance status of the insect strains that are to be treated. So far, the instructions of DDPTTK refer only to a six insect species. In this work, data for the expansion of knowledge about other species is provided, in order to broaden the spectrum of cases where the kit can be used. Moreover, certain improvements for the use of the kit are introduced, i.e. practical recommendations on the procedure and safety instructions.</p> Marie-Carolin Goetze Renate Steuerwald Agrafioti Paraskevi Maria K. Sakka Gerhard Jakob Christos G. Athanassiou ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-08 2018-11-08 463 1002 1006 10.5073/jka.2018.463.218 From narcosis to recovery: development of a rapid diagnostic test for phosphine resistance https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10921 <p>Hydrogen phosphide (PH3) is the most commonly used gas for insect control in durable stored products. One of the quick diagnostic tests that are currently in use is the Detia Degesch Phosphine Tolerance Test Kit (DDPTTK), which has been developed by Detia Degesch GmbH (Laudenbach, Germany). DDPTTK provides a rapid evaluation tool for phosphine resistance, where insects are exposed in syringes that contain a high concentration of gas (e.g. 3000 ppm), while this gas is produced on site by adding tablets into a canister. We used DDPTTK to evaluate resistance of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to phosphine. For this purpose, we followed a specific succession of observations on the exposed adults of this species, in an effort to set the scene for designing a rapid diagnostic tool for phosphine resistance, based upon quick bioassays. Two T. castaneum strains were used, one susceptible and one resistant to phosphine. Twenty adults of each of the populations (separate sets of adults each time) were placed in syringe of 100 ml under 1000 or 3000 ppm of phosphine. The insects inside the syringe were monitored at 15-min intervals, for a total period of 90 min, and classified as active, under narcosis and immobilized. After this period, all insects were removed from the syringe and placed in plastic petri dishes with a small quantity of wheat flour. The insects were classified again at the three categories above, after 2 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d and 7 d. Regarding the exposure period, at 1000 ppm, all adults of the susceptible strain were immobilized after 60 min of exposure, and remained at this condition until the end of the observation period. At the same concentration, the majority of adults of the resistant strain remained active until the end of the observation period. At 3000 ppm, for the susceptible strain, all adults became immobilized after 90 min observation. For the same concentration, the percentage of the adults of the resistant strain that were active was notably reduced in comparison with 1000 ppm. For the post-exposure period, at 1000 or 3000 ppm, for the susceptible strain, the number of adults that were immobilized reached 95 % after 7 d. At the same phosphine concentration, almost all of the adults of the resistant strain were active even at the 2 h post-exposure period, and practically remain at this condition until the end of the observation period. Our findings indicate that time-to-narcosis / immobilization is inversely proportional to time-to-recovery of the same individuals, and this characteristic can be also considered as an indicator for resistance.</p> Christos G. Athanassiou N. G. Kavallieratos Daniel L. Brabec B. Oppert Raul Narciso C. Guedes James F. Campbell ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-08 2018-11-08 463 1006 1008 10.5073/jka.2018.463.219 Evaluation of tolerance/resistance to phosphine of stored product beetle populations from Europe, by using different diagnostic methods https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10922 <p>We evaluated the susceptibility to phosphine in different populations originated from 14 European countries, by following different diagnostic protocols. In total, more than 200 populations were screened during these tests, classified to 9 beetle species: <em>Tribolium confusum</em> Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), <em>Tribolium castaneum</em> (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), <em>Oryzaephilus surinamensis</em> (L.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae), <em>Sitophilus oryzae</em> (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), <em>Sitophilus granarius</em> (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), <em>Cryptolestes ferrugineus</em> (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), <em>Rhyzopertha dominica</em> (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) and <em>Lasioderma serricorne</em> (F.) (Coleoprtera: Anobiidae). The different bioassay-related diagnostic protocols that were followed were based on different exposure intervals and phosphine concentrations, ranging between 90 min and 4 d, and between 30 and 3000 ppm, respectively. Our results indicated that one of the populations that had been sampled from Europe was strongly resistant to phosphine. Moreover, the different protocols provide comparable results, which means that a standardized diagnostic can be further designed and adopted. Moreover, molecular assays indicated that the mutations P49S in <em>R. dominica</em> and P45S in <em>T. castaneum</em> are common among different populations, regardless of the degree of resistance to phosphine. Our results suggest that there are reliable quick tools for the evaluation of resistance to phosphine and that insect sampling in target areas should be conducted on a regular basis.</p> Maria K. Sakka Maria Riga John Vontas Marie-Carolin Götze Jonny Allegra Jakob Gerhard Christos G. Athanassiou ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-08 2018-11-08 463 1008 1013 10.5073/jka.2018.463.220 Potential for using pheromone trapping and molecular screening in phosphine resistance research https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10923 <p>Phosphine resistance monitoring typically involves bioassays of beetles from population samples collected from grain storage facilities. Insects are classified into susceptible or resistant phenotypes based on mortality or survival at one or more discriminating doses. Although valuable, phenotype testing has several drawbacks. First, phenotype testing needs live insects, and considerable effort is required to collect and maintain them before testing. Second, population samples may contain multiple genotypes expressing different levels of resistance that may not be distinguishable using discriminating dose bioassays. Third, collections are likely to be focussed around grain storages to maximise sampling success. Recent research shows that several key pests are actively dispersing through flight. The availability of commercial pheromone lures and recent advances in molecular screening provide an opportunity to provide information on resistance gene frequencies more broadly across the landscape. This approach is proving to be a valuable adjunct to traditional resistance testing in Australia.</p> Gregory J. Daglish Rajeswaran Jagadeesan Virgine Singarayan Nisa S. Nath David I. Schlipalius Paul R. Ebert Manoj K. Nayak ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-08 2018-11-08 463 1013 1017 10.5073/jka.2018.463.221 Screening of phosphine resistance in <i>Sitophilus oryzae</i> (L.) (rice weevil) populations in Turkey https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10924 <p>In this study, the status and prevalence of phosphine resistance in <em>Sitophilus oryzae</em> (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations collected from Mersin and Konya Province in Turkey were investigated by conducting the discrimination concentration tests and the concentration–mortality bioassays. Discriminating concentration tests showed that 89.9 and 83.3 % populations of tested total <em>S. oryzae</em> populations collected from Mersin and Konya province respectively were resistance to phosphine, which reveals high prevalence of phosphine resistance in the insect sampling locations of both provinces. Moreover, discrimination low concentration (0.04 mg/l) tests indicated that 62.5 and 33.3% of total <em>S. oryzae</em> populations collected from Mersin and Konya province respectively had 90% or above survival rate, which showed that the frequency of high phosphine resistance in <em>S. oryzae</em> populations collected from Mersin province was higher than that in <em>S. oryzae</em> populations collected from Konya province. The concentration–mortality bioassays indicated that there were significant differences in resistance levels of <em>S. oryzae</em> populations collected from different provinces. Based on the resistance factors (RF) calculated by LC<sub>50</sub> values <em>S. oryzae</em> populations from Mersin and Konya province were 102- to 104-fold and 38- and 81-fold resistance to phosphine compared with susceptible <em>S. oryzae</em> population, respectively. The highest level of phosphine resistance was determined in <em>S. oryzae</em> populations from Mersin province, followed by those from Konya provinces, respectively. These results indicated that <em>S. oryzae</em> populations from Mersin province had higher phosphine resistance than those from Konya Province. In conclusion, this study showed that high levels of phosphine resistance in <em>S. oryzae</em> populations collected from different grain storages in Mersin and Konya province of Turkey were prevalent.</p> Ahmet Tingiş Ali Arda Işikber Özgür Sağlam Hüseyin Bozkurt İnanç Şafak Doğanay ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-08 2018-11-08 463 1017 1021 10.5073/jka.2018.463.222 Co-fumigation with phosphine and sulfuryl fluoride: Potential for managing strongly phosphine-resistant rusty grain beetle, <i>Cryptolestes ferrugineus</i> (Stephens) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10925 <p>Populations of rusty grain beetle, <em>Cryptolestes ferrugineus</em>, have developed a very high level of resistance (1300×) to the fumigant phosphine (PH<sub>3</sub>) in Australia. Resistant insects triggered control failures, threatening the country’s annual grain market worth AU$8 billion. Although PH<sub>3</sub> protocols were amended to manage this new resistance, fumigation requires lengthy exposure periods which has practical difficulties. While there is no suitable replacement for PH<sub>3</sub>, the current study explores potential approaches to enhance the efficacy of this fumigant. One possibility is co-fumigation of PH3 with another complementary fumigant, sulfuryl fluoride (SO<sub>2</sub>F<sub>2</sub> or SF), with the dual goals: enhanced efficacy and minimise use of both fumigants. A cohort of mixed age eggs and adults of PH<sub>3</sub>-resistant <em>C. ferrugineus</em> was fumigated with PH<sub>3</sub> and SF individually, as well as in combination inside desiccators at 25°C and 60%RH for 168 h. Two doses below the maximal registered rates for SF (8.9 mg L<sup>- 1</sup>, equivalent to 1500 g hm<sup>-3</sup>) and PH<sub>3</sub> (1.0 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) were tested. Co-fumigation was performed simultaneously for 168 h. Our results revealed that, the mixture of 1.1 mg L<sup>-1</sup> or 2.2 mg L<sup>-1</sup> of SF and 0.5 mg L<sup>-1</sup> of PH<sub>3</sub> over 168 h achieved complete control against resistant <em>C. ferrugineus</em> eggs and adults, whereas each of the tested doses failed individually. Our study confirms that SF and PH<sub>3</sub> enhance the efficacy of each other when used in combination, which holds great potential for managing resistant <em>C. ferrugineus</em>.</p> Rajeswaran Jagadeesan Manoj K. Nayak Virgine Singarayan Paul R. Ebert ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-08 2018-11-08 463 1021 1024 10.5073/jka.2018.463.223 Response of <i>Callosobruchus chinensis</i> L. to plant extracts and to the parasitoid <i>Anisopteromalus calandrae</i> https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10926 <p>Present investigation was carried out to elucidate the extracts of botanicals i.e., <em>Cichorium intybus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Trachyspermum ammi</em> and <em>Terminalia chebula</em>, for their possible toxic effect against <em>C. chinensis</em> population. The results revealed that mortality was highest (94.649%) in case of <em>T. ammi</em> treatment, followed by <em>T. chebula</em> with mortality value 56.929%. Mortality was 52.363% where application of <em>C. intybus</em> was carried out. Minimum mortality (34.500%) was observed in <em>G. glabra</em> treated grains. A natural ecto-parasitoid, <em>Anisopteromalus calandrae</em> was used to manage <em>C. chinensis</em> population. <em>A. calandrae</em> male and female adults (5, 10 and 15 pairs) were released to analyze the parasitism efficiency. <em>A. calandrae</em> was reared in the laboratory on <em>C. chinensis</em> larvae. Honey was offered as a suitable food to parasitoid. The parasitism data was recorded after the adult emergence of brunchid beetles. The experiment conducted under Completely Randomized Design and results statistically evaluated using statistical software at 5% level of significance. <em>A. calandrae</em> parasitized both larval and pupal stages of <em>C. chinensis</em> and preferred 4th instar larvae of <em>C. chinensis</em>. Large amount of <em>A. calandrae</em> may efficiently control the <em>C. chinensis</em> population. As compared to control (1558.7 host adult), the minimum host emergence (699.00 host adult) was observed with high population density of <em>A. calandrae</em>. It was also obvious from the results, that mortality was increased with the increase in concentration so, a direct dosemortality response was observed.</p> Ali Qurban Mansoor ul Hasan Muhammad Umar Qasim Muhammad Asghar Shahzad Saleem ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-13 2018-11-13 463 1024 1029 10.5073/jka.2018.463.224 Detection of hidden insect Sitophilus oryzae in wheat by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10927 <p>Insects, either adults or larvae, living inside grains are difficlut to detect but can cause enormous loss of grain. Therefore, we explored the use of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) techniques to detect <em>Sitophilus oryzae</em> hidden inside wheat. Significant difference in transverse relaxation times (T<sub>2</sub>/ms) and the T<sub>2</sub> components proportion (P<sub>2</sub>/%) was observed between wheat and<em> S. oryzae</em> at its four different growth stages (small larvae, large larve stage, pupal stage and adult stage). The transverse relaxation signals on the infested wheat kernels varied with <em>S. oryzae</em> developmental stages. LF-NMR image of uninfested wheat were very different than infested wheat with the hidden insects at its four growth stages. Therefore, LF-NMR, as a novel non-destructive method, could be used to detect insects hidden in grains to take necessary management against pest damage to grains during storage.</p> Xiaolong Shao Chao Ding Jitendra Paliwal Qiang Zhang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-08 2018-11-08 463 1029 1037 10.5073/jka.2018.463.225 IPM guidelines as fundament for sustainability in plant protection: The case for stored product protection https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10928 Bernd Hommel Nadine Feuerbach ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-13 2018-11-13 463 1037 1039 10.5073/jka.2018.463.226 Capability and limitation of anoxic treatments in museum collections protection https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10929 Bill Landsberger Harro Frauendorf Cornel Adler Rudy Plarre ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-08 2018-11-08 463 1039 1039 10.5073/jka.2018.463.227 Susceptibility of phosphine-resistant cigarette beetles to various insecticides https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10930 <p>Management of phosphine resistance in the cigarette beetle <em>Lasioderma serricorne</em> (F.) has become a topic of great interest to the tobacco industry in recent years. Effective use of contact insecticides with modes of action different from that of phosphine can be a key element in preventing or delaying the evolution of phosphine resistance. This study was conducted to ascertain whether five insecticides selected from three mode-of-action classes (fenitrothion, pirimiphos-methyl, permethrin, bifenthrin, and spinosad) can be incorporated into a phosphine-resistance management strategy. Specifically, we examined the contact efficacy of the insecticides to a phosphine-susceptible strain and six resistant strains (38–184-fold in resistance ratio based on LC<sub>50</sub>). Susceptibility to organophosphates (fenitrothion, pirimiphos-methyl) and spinosad was not significantly different between phosphine-susceptible and phosphine-resistant strains (within 2.3-fold resistance ratio). The absence of the cross-resistance between these insecticides and phosphine makes them ideal for resistancemanagement programmes. However, high resistance to synthetic pyrethroids (&gt;145-fold for permethrin and &gt;1697-fold for bifenthrin) was found in three of six phosphine-resistant strains. Based on these results, synthetic pyrethroids cannot be recommended as insecticides of primary choice.</p> Naoto Fukazawa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-08 2018-11-08 463 1039 1043 10.5073/jka.2018.463.228 Rapid detection of phosphine resistance in the lesser grain borer, <i>Rhyzopertha dominica</i> (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) from China using ARMS-PCR https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10932 <p>MThe lesser grain borer, <em>Rhyzopertha dominica</em> is one of the serious cosmopolitan stored grain pests worldwide. High phosphine resistant R. dominica has been reported in several countries. The evolution of strong phosphine resistance is a major challenge for continuous application of the fumigant. Rapid detection of phosphine resistance level is a prime key to implement an appropriate strategy for control the stored-product pests. Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) is a key metabolic enzyme mediating the phosphine resistance in population of <em>R. dominica, Tribolium castaneum</em> and <em>Caenorhabditis elegans</em>. Analysis of the DLD sequences deposited in GenBank revealed that the P45/49S mutation was the most common one in many PH<sub>3</sub>-resistant stored-product pest insects. This information now enables direct detection of resistance using molecular diagnosis in field populations. We herein propose a method for rapid detection of phosphine resistance in <em>R. dominica</em> according to P49S point mutation of the DLD gene. Our data provides evidence that the ARMS-PCR method can be used for early warning of phosphine resistance in <em>R. dominica</em> in field conditions.</p> Yujie Lu Chenguang Zhang Zhenyan Wang Xiaoping Yan Robert N. Emery ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 463 1043 1045 10.5073/jka.2018.463.229 Determınatıon of toxıcıty of gaseous ozone agaınst adult stages of German Cockroach (<i>Blatella germanıca</i> L.) https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10933 <p>In this study, the effects of two different concentrations of ozone gas (16.7 and 33.3 mg / L) against <em>Blatella germanica</em> adults at different exposure times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes) were investigated under laboratory conditions. It was determined that the ozone gas had a noticeable effect on mortality of B. germanica adults. In general, ozone gas caused higher paralyisis-mortality rates of <em>B. germanica</em> adults than mortality rates of <em>B.germanica</em> adults at both concentrations and all exposure times. A concentration of 33.3 mg / L of ozone gas with 40 and 50 minute exposure times killed all cockroach adults after 24 hours. On the other hand, 16.7 mg / L concentration of ozone gas with 50 minute exposure time killed 90% of the <em>B. germanica</em> adults after 24 hours. When ozone gas is evaluated in terms of exposure time to <em>B. germanica</em> adults, the concentration of 33.3 mg / L of ozone gas with 10-20 minute exposure times caused 65 % adult mortality, with 30 minute exposure time caused 90% adult mortality and with 50 minute exposure times caused 100 % adult mortality after 24 hours. At a concentration of 16.7 mg / L of ozone gas, as the exposure times increased, the adult mortalities gradually increased after 24 hours and the adult mortality reached 90% with 50 minute exposure times. All these results show that ozone gas (33.3 mg / L) with 40-50 minute exposure times can successfully control <em>B.germanica</em> adults.</p> Uğur Güz Hasan Tunanz Mehmet Kubilay Er Ali Arda Işikber ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 463 1045 1048 10.5073/jka.2018.463.230 Does the lower concentration of anticoagulants affect the efficacy of rodenticide baits? https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10934 Marcela Frankova Radek Aulicky Vaclav Stejskal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 463 1048 1049 10.5073/jka.2018.463.231 Australia’s Grains Farm Biosecurity Program – a national initiative in plant biosecurity awareness, education and best management practice. https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10935 <p>Sound biosecurity systems contribute to achieving sustainable agricultural and environmental systems, reducing the threat of introducing unwanted pests and supporting food safety and product integrity. Within Australia, the Grains Farm Biosecurity Program (GFBP) is a national initiative to assist in the development and implementation of improved biosecurity practice within its grain industry. Initiated in 2007, the extension focused program contributes to the industry’s risk mitigation activities, supports continued market access and promotes a partnership approach involving governments, industry and community. The program is funded through grower levies in partnership with state government agencies and Plant Health Australia. <br>Using a variety of community engagement strategies, the GFBP has developed a wide range of tools to improve the management of and preparedness for, biosecurity risks in the Australian grains industry at the farm and industry level by highlighting risk pathways and activities throughout the supply chain and encouraging adoption of practices and strategies to mitigate risks. The GFPB also promotes and conducts surveillance for high priority pests especially in on-farm storage. Evaluations indicate an increased awareness of biosecurity risks, industry capacity and voluntary adoption of biosecurity best practices throughout the sector. <br>The GFBP focus on biosecurity best practice through industry engagement has seen it contribute to safeguarding and maintaining Australia’s export reputation, with the program recently winning a national biosecurity award.</p> Rachel Taylor-Hukins Judy Bellati Kym McIntyre Jim Moran Jeff Russel David Gale Sharyn Taylor ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 463 1050 1052 10.5073/jka.2018.463.232 A commercial method of controlling bedbugs (<i>Cimex lectularius</i>) using CO<sub>2</sub> in dwellings https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10936 <p>As a result of withdrawing residual insecticides such as organophosphates and carbamates throughout the world, infestation in<em> Cimex lectularius</em> has been dramatically increased in recent years. The ability of this pest to starve for three months and its flattened shape of body enables it to hide in tiny holes/cracks or folds, making it difficult to control. Therefore, as a complementary action, fumigating products like textile products and furniture within the dwellings became a practice in Israel. After the conventional treatment of stripping the room, vacuuming, steaming the mattresses and then spraying with a Pyrethroid – a novel method was developed; instead of steaming the mattress and dry cleaning all textile clothes and products, fumigating all movable furniture and textile products with CO<sub>2</sub> inside the dwellings. Based on several scientific papers on the efficacy of CO<sub>2</sub> on the bedbugs, this method has been successfully implemented in Israel. All textile products are inserted into a sealed, low permeability fumigation cube for three days of exposure time at room temperature to reach a calculated concentration of 100% CO<sub>2</sub>. Since textile products absorb some of the CO<sub>2</sub>, the concentrations quickly drops to about 80%. During the summer of 2017, numerous treatments have been carried out with a 100% success and repeated treatments were not required. This treatment has proved to be a promising method of controlling <em>C. lectularius</em> with no need for evacuation of the residents and saving money and efforts in dry cleaning cloths and textile products. It is highly effective against all life stages of the pest.</p> Hagit Navarro Shlomo Navarro ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 463 1052 1058 10.5073/jka.2018.463.233 Mycotoxin prevalence in stored animal feeds and ingredients in Rwanda https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10937 <p>Aflatoxins and fumonisins are fungi metabolites produced when climate conditions are favorable. They contaminate feed ingredients when storage conditions are unfavorable. Aflatoxins and fumonisins have a negative impact on animal health and productivity. Humans are indirectly exposed to mycotoxins when they consume contaminated animal source foods from livestock fed contaminated feeds. A total of 3328 feed samples were collected in all 30 district of Rwanda between March and October 2017. Four categories of participants participated in the study (dairy farmers, poultry farmers, feed processors/grain millers, and feed vendors). Feed samples were highly contaminated with aflatoxins but not fumonisins. Average aflatoxin levels were highest in dairy feeds (108.3 µg/kg) followed by poultry feed (103.81 µg/kg). Average aflatoxin levels were lowest in samples from feed vendors (88.64 µg/kg) compared to samples from feed processors (94.95 µg/kg). This study documents high levels of aflatoxin contamination in feed samples, and recommends year-round surveillance of feed ingredients and mixed feeds for mycotoxin presence. Additionally, more awareness through communication and education needs to be raised among stakeholders in the evolving feed value chain in Rwanda to mitigate the consequences of mycotoxin contamination on public health and animal produtivity.</p> Kizito Nishimwe Erin Bowers Jean de Dieu Ayabagabo Richard Habimana Samuel Mutiga Dirk E. Maier ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 463 1058 1060 10.5073/jka.2018.463.234 Development of sensitive polyclonal antibodies against dominant stored wheat grain fungus for its immunological detection https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10938 <p>Fungal infestation causes deterioration of stored food grains. Most fungal species produce secondary metabolites like aflatoxins which are highly toxic to animals and humans.<em> Aspergillus flavus</em> has been found to be the predominant contaminant in stored wheat grains collected from the godowns of Food Corporation of India, West Bengal. The present study focuses on the development of sensitive polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) for molecular immunological detection of dominant toxigenic fungus. Pure<em> A. flavus</em> isolate was cultured on coconut agar media and its spores were harvested and inactivated by 4% formaldehyde. The inactivated spores were injected into a rabbit along with Freund’s complete/incomplete adjuvant for the development of PAbs. Specificity of the raised antibodies in rabbit serum was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using spore proteins as antigen obtained by bead beating method. Out of several proteins (ranging from 10 to 200 kDa present in spore, only two prominent proteins of around 76 kDa and 100 kDa were detected by western blot analysis using raised polyclonal antiserum. The PAbs were purified with protein A column followed by spore proteins conjugated CNBr activated sepharose column for its use in the detection of fungal antigens. This highly purified raised antibody can be used for the development of rapid, sensitive, and accurate techniques (such as dot blot/ELISA) for the detection of toxigenic fungi present in stored wheat grains.</p> Rajana Kumari Ananta K. Gosch ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 463 1060 1066 10.5073/jka.2018.463.235 Smallholder farmers’ perceptions of aflatoxins in maize in kamuli district, Uganda https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10939 Rachael Barnes Thomas Brumm Dirk E. Maier Shweta Chopra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 463 1066 1068 10.5073/jka.2018.463.236 The mycoflora of bulk stored cocoa https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10940 Daniela Bartels ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 463 1068 1069 10.5073/jka.2018.463.237 Borderline cases between biocidal products regulation and plant protection products regulation https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10941 Carsten Dogs ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 463 1069 1071 10.5073/jka.2018.463.238 Customer complaints about insect contaminated ready meals https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10942 <p>More than one-hundred food complaints about ready meals, coming from mass catering, were analyzed from 2003 to 2017. Even if insects in meals have an enormous negative impact on customers, the percentage relevance, considering the long period and the number of meals served, is negligible. Coleoptera (34%) was the most represented order, followed by Lepidoptera (27%), and Diptera (23%). Coleoptera insects were mainly field pests, found in salads and spinach, moths were represented by species infesting vegetables (58%) and by stored product pests (42%). Species of hygienic concern were found in Diptera. Few cases of cockroach contamination were reported on different food, but it is important to underline their presence in the meal, as it indicates a heavy environmental infestation and a high hygienic risk.</p> Lidia Limonta Sara Savoldelli Daria P. Locatelli ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 463 1071 1074 10.5073/jka.2018.463.239 Moulds infesting local and imported rice (<i>Oryza</i> spp.) in Cameroon https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10943 <p>Loss in quality and quantities of rice during storage is an important issue to focus on. Moulds contaminating rice were investigated and their injuries on rice during storage were evaluated. Local and imported rice samples sold in markets and mills were stored for 3 months under laboratory conditions. The contaminated grains were counted and analyzed to characterize storage moulds. <br>All rice samples evaluated were contaminated by moulds, right from sampling date. The quantity of mouldy grains varied from 1.1% for the rice sample from UNVDA to 4.2% rice brand ‘Main dans la Main’. The highest mould infestation in terms of quality and quantity, was recorded on imported rice samples of world rice and ‘Main dans la Main’ 22.3 and 25.3% respectively; meanwhile ‘Tox 3145 parboiled’, Uncle Benz and Neima presented 7.5, 8.9 and8.9% respectively. <br>In general, imported rice samples contained the highest fungal load with a proportion of 65.9% compared to 34.3% for local samples. Among the 67 isolated strains, the genus <em>Aspergillus</em> dominated, followed by <em>Penicillium, Mucor</em> and <em>Circinella</em> with 13.4, 8.9, and 4.4% respectively. Therefore in Cameroon, some locally produced, but mostly some imported rice contain moulds from different genera, which damage rice at different proportions. It is urgent to develop methods to inhibit the growth of potential storage moulds and preserve the quality of rice consumed.</p> Delphine Mapiemfu-Lamare Youmma Douksouna Zachée Ambang Francis Ngome Erasmus N. Tang Sali A. Ndindeng Dooh Jules Ngoh Christopher Suh Mickael Akem Noe Woin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 463 1074 1082 10.5073/jka.2018.463.240 Reduction of fungi and mycotoxin decontamination by ozone gas treatment in three stored rice (<i>Oryza sativa</i> L.) varieties https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10944 <p>The present work brings together different rice varieties (black, brown and white) evaluated for their differences/ susceptibilities/resistance to ozone (O<sub>3</sub>) gas treatment for safer storage (mycological and toxicological contamination control). The three rice varieties were separated into two Groups –Control (GC) andtreated Groups (GT) which had O<sub>3</sub> gas applied (5 L/min, 40 ppm and 60 min for gas flow). Samples were collected during the storage period to check for the O<sub>3</sub> gas effect on fungi reduction (total count and fungi genera identification) and so for the humidity parameters of moisture content (mc) and water activity (aw). It was possible to verify the effectiveness of the O<sub>3</sub> application in the samples when compared to Control. It was observed that even at the shortest time of gas exposure, O<sub>3</sub> application caused changes to fungi (both growth speed &amp; toxin formation). The grains did not change their organoleptic, physical and biochemical characteristics after O<sub>3</sub> application. Recent studies from our Labmico Group indicated that the O<sub>3</sub> application in addition to prevention of the biological contaminants, as reported in the current work, also reduces an insecticide (deltamethrin) residues. As O<sub>3</sub> treated grain has reduced fungi contamination and toxicity of rice grains in all the varieties studied, it can be considered a potential agent to control fungi spoilage and so for toxigenic strains. Considering that there is a growing concern on the use of agrochemicals and their harmful effects on human health and the environment, O<sub>3</sub> application can be a promising to implement decontaminationof highly consumed grains worldwide, such as rice.</p> Bárbara C. F. Ferreira Carlos E. da Silva Soares Milena O. Dutra Christiano W. Rabelo Vildes M. Scussel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 463 1082 1088 10.5073/jka.2018.463.241 Safe storage guidelines for soybeans at different temperatures and moisture contents https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10945 <p>Poor storage capacity of soybean makes it prone to fungal spoilage and heating during storage, resulting in lower quality. Early prediction of the fungal spoilage in stored soybeans is very difficult because fungi are often too small to be seen with the naked eye. Here a new method for fungus to early detection is adopted: it is called counting fungal spores. Soybeans with moisture contents of 11.4, 12.1, 13.0, 13.9, 14.3 and 14.7%, were held at 6 temperatures 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35? for180d. Samples were taken at regular intervals and the fungal spores counted. The safe storage conditions (temperature, moisture content, duration) were estimated by means of a curve fitted using the power function fitting. It can predict of soybean spoilage by fungus before there is visible damage.</p> Fang Tang Yi Ouyang Zhihui Qi Haiyang Zhang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 463 1088 1091 10.5073/jka.2018.463.242 Evaluation of aflatoxin contamination of stored maize in the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10946 <p>This study assessed the aflatoxin contamination and the presence of fungi in three maize varieties (Obatanpa, Abontem and Aburohemaa) stored using different storage methods namely storage in hermetic bags, woven polypropylene sacks and local crib in the Nkoranza-South district of the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana. A factorial design arrangement was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The isolation and identification of fungal pathogens associated with maize samples before and after storage were carried out on potato dextrose agar (PDA). Total flatoxin levels in the three maize varieties was determined by the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 450 nm wavelength. Six fungi species were identified in the maize namely: <em>Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium</em> sp, <em>Fusarium</em> sp., <em>Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum gleosporioides</em> and <em>Rhizopus</em>. Before storage, Abontem variety recorded significantly higher (p &lt; 0.05) total aflatoxin levels (113.56 ppb) compared to Obatanpa (2.91 ppb) and Aburohemaa (2.96 ppb). Maize samples stored in the polypropylene sack established significantly higher (p &lt; 0.05) total aflatoxin levels of 82.9 ppb compared to hermetic bags (48.9 ppb) and local crib (48.9 ppb) after storage for six months. Aflatoxin levels under the interactive effect of variety and storage method was significant (p &lt; 0.05). Overall storage of maize in hermetic bags significantly reduced aflatoxin levels hence the need to encourage maize farmers and traders to adopt hermetic bag storage technology.</p> Robert Benson-Obour Michael Lartey William Cornelius James Agyel--Ohemeng Phyllis Opare Luciano Cinquanta Daniel Obeng-Ofori ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 463 1091 1098 10.5073/jka.2018.463.243 Effect of cold plasma on storage toxigenic fungi - <i>Aspergillus flavus</i> https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10948 <p>Cold plasma is a novel non-thermal food processing technology that uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria. This flexible sanitizing method uses electricity and a carrier gas (air, oxygen, nitrogen, or helium) antimicrobial chemical agents are not required. The primary modes of action are due to UV light and reactive chemical products of the cold plasma ionization process. <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> is the predominant species responsible for fungal contamination and subsequent production of aflatoxins mainly in grains during postharvest operations and storage. Due to their relatively high contamination risk, decontamination methods for fungi are of great interest for economic and environmental reasons, as well as in public health. Improved post-harvest processing followed by further prevention of fungal growth is an effective way to restrict aflatoxin contamination and would have major impact on reducing health related risks and on production economics. Thus, the objective is to evaluate the inactivation of <em>A. flavus</em> by cold plasma. The experiment was conducted with 3 mm sample <em>A. flavus </em>in PDA culture medium. Plasma was applied at different durations (2, 5, 10, 12, 15 and 20 min). After application, the Petri dishes with treated samples were stored at 25°C for 6 days. There was fungal growth after 2 days in the treatments with2 and 5 min durations, 4 days with the treatments with 10 and 12 min durations and there was no fungal growth with the treatments of 15 and 20 min after 6 days. The durationof 15 and 20 min with the plasma parameters tested, were efficient for the inactivation of <em>A. flavus</em>. Cold plasma may be a promising green method to be applied in this microorganisms present in grains and other products during storage.</p> Jr. Silva M. Medeiros Mn. Pereira Ks. Barcelos Alv Cubas Eh. Moecke Vildes M. Scussel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 463 1098 1102 10.5073/jka.2018.463.244 Computer-aid molecular docking technology in cereal mycotoxin analysis https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10949 <p>Computer-aid molecular docking is a simulative process that receptors and ligands recognize each other through energy matching and geometric matching. It is widely used in bioactive compounds simulative screening and preliminary exploring the bioactivity and toxicity of molecular, which plays important guiding role in toxicity and bioactivity study of molecular entities. In our study, we used the computer-aid molecular docking software-discovery studio 3.1 client to test the mechanism of aflatoxins such as aflatoxin B1, B2, M1, M2, G1, G2 and the results of our experiment help to illustrate the pathway of aflatoxin’s toxication. We also used this technology to test the preliminary toxicity of zearalenone (ZEN) and its two degradation products: a- zearalenol (a-ZOL) and ß-zearalenol (ß-ZOL), which indicates that these three products possessed significant estrogenic activity. The order of the estrogenic activity is: a-zearalenol &gt; zearalenone &gt;ß-zearalenol.</p> Jinying Chen Fusheng Gong Zi Tai Sang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 463 1102 1111 10.5073/jka.2018.463.245 Insects and mycobiota in <i>Phaseolus vulgaris</i> L. grains sold in retail stores https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10953 <p>In Brazil beans are an important protein source and the great variety of <em>Phaseolus</em> and Vigna beans grains are sold in retail markets. The objective of this study was to isolate fungi from insects and <em>Phaseolus vulgaris</em> (var. Pinto) from 15 samples of different retail stores in São Paulo. The samples were placed in Petri dishes containing culture medium of potato-dextrose-agar and incubated at 25°C for 7 days. Fungi were identified in several insects: <em>Callosobruchus maculatus</em> (yeasts - 50%), <em>Sitophilus</em> spp. (<em>Chaetomium</em> spp. – 3.1%; <em>Rhizopus stolonifer</em>- 3.1%; Non Sporulating Fungi (NSF) – 12.5% and <em>Eurotium chevalieri</em> - 9.4%, A<em>canthoscelides obtectus</em> (<em>Penicillium</em> spp. – 18.5% and yeasts – 18.5%) and <em>Zabrotes subfasciatus</em> (<em>Alternaria alternata</em> – 13.6 % and <em>Penicillium</em> spp. – 41 %). No fungi were observed in the parasitoid <em>Dinarmus basalis</em>. In grain samples, the following fungi were found:<em> Penicillium</em> spp. (6%), <em>E. chevalieri</em> (5%), <em>R. stolonifer</em> (0.3%), <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> (3 %), NSF (8 %), Yeasts (2.6%), <em>Phoma</em> spp. (1.6%) and <em>Alternaria alternata</em> (3.6%).</p> Fabricio Caldeira Reis Marcos Roberto Potenza Simone Aquino Valter Arthur ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-12 2018-11-12 463 1111 1113 10.5073/jka.2018.463.246 Naturally existing <i>Beauveria</i> on the surface of stored wheat kernels, and their pathogenicity on <i>Rhyzopertha dominica</i> and <i>Sitophilus oryzae</i> adults https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10954 <p>Entomopathogenic fungi have been investigated to control stored product pests, as an alternative strategy to chemical insecticides. Although many studies evaluated isolates from various sources, few studies surveyed fungi naturally infecting stored product pests, revealing predominantly <em>Beauveria</em> isolates. This study aimed to reveal the amount of <em>Beauveria</em> carried on the surface of stored wheat kernels, and their pathogenicity against <em>Rhyzopertha dominica</em> and <em>Sitophilus oryzae</em> adults. Sixteen wheat samples from different storage facilities in four cities were examined for existence of <em>Beauveria</em>. One-hundred g of wheat was washed in 100 mL of 2% Tween80 solution. After increasing concentration of possible fungi by centrifugation, the liquid was spread on medium with dodine and monitored at 25±2°C. Nine of the isolates were tested for pathogenicity at 500 ppm (w/w) at 25±2°C, 65±5% r.h. in darkness with five replicates. While only four samples did not have <em>Beauveria</em>, others had 17-2992 cfu/100 g wheat. Six samples had 17-50, four samples 150-858, one sample 1625 and one had 2992 cfu/100 g wheat. Mortalities against <em>R. dominica</em> adults ranged between 5-86% and 32-100% in 7 and 14 days, respectively. Mortality of <em>S. oryzae</em> ranged from 3-45% and 8-83% in 7 and 14 days, respectively. This study demonstrated that wheat kernels can naturally carry <em>Beauveria</em> with various levels of pathogenicity. Potential naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungi can be isolated directly from stored commodities to be evaluated as biological control agents for stored product pest control.</p> Mehmet Kubilay Er Cebrail Barış Ali Arda Işikber Hasan Tunaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-12 2018-11-12 463 1113 1116 10.5073/jka.2018.463.247 Pulses protein quality control at different storage conditions for further protein extraction – a review https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10955 <p>The storage conditions are of extreme importance with regards to grains (cereal &amp; pulses) components (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins) preservation and quality for industry (that may interfere to whole process and quality of the final product). In addition, the vegetarian consumers’ interest of protein supplement (capsules) from pulses such as beans (<em>Phaseolus vulgaris</em> L.), chickpeas (<em>Cicer arietinum</em> L.), lentils (<em>Lens culinaris</em> L.), peas (<em>Pisum sativum</em> L.), peanuts (<em>Arachis hypogaea</em> L.), also soybeans (<em>Glycine max</em> L.) has grown considerably, mainly due to their non-lactose&amp;non-animal-based ingredients and also non-transgenic in some of the pulses. Therefore, there is a need of information regarding pulses storage conditions on their components’ quality/quantity and so for safety of the raw material utilized for protein extract purposes. In addition, to get safe pulses raw materials for protein extraction aimed for vegetarian supplements, one needs to take into account <br>(a) quite controlled storage conditions, apart from <br>(b) pesticide residues and mycotoxins contamination control. <br>Therefore, the present reviewgathers and compiles the characterization of six different pulses by evaluating amino acids profile as indicators of protein quality, and compares them with different varieties for further protein extraction.</p> Milena O. Dutra Carlos E. S. Soares Bárbara C. F. Ferreira Christiano W. R. Ribeiro Vildes M. Scussel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-12 2018-11-12 463 1116 1126 10.5073/jka.2018.463.248 Mites in aromatic, condiment and medicinal dehydrated plants in bulk sale in the city of São Paulo. https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10956 Marcia da Fonseca Valbuza André Luis Matioli Mario Eidi Sato Marcos Roberto Potenza Ana Eugênia de Carvalho Campos ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-12 2018-11-12 463 1126 1126 10.5073/jka.2018.463.249 Mitochondrial genome organization varies among different groups of the booklouse, <i>Liposcelis bostrychophila</i> https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10957 <p>The booklouse, <em>Liposcelis bostrychophila</em> is an important stored pest worldwide. The mt genome of an asexual strain (Beibei, China) of the booklouse, <em>L. bostrychophila</em>, comprises two chromosomes; each chromosome contains approximate half of the 37 genes typically found in animals. The mt genomes of two sexual strains of <em>L. bostrychophila,</em> however, comprise five and seven chromosomes respectively; each chromosome contains one to six genes. To understand mt genome evolution in <em>L. bostrychophila</em>, we sequenced the mt genomes of six strains of asexual <em>L. bostrychophila</em> collected from different locations in China, Croatia and USA. The mt genomes of all of the six asexual strains of <em>L. bostrychophila</em> collected in China, Croatia and USA have two chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis of mt genome sequences divided nine strains of <em>L. bostrychophila</em> into four groups. Each group has a distinct mt genome organization and substantial sequence divergence (48.7-87.4%) from other groups. Furthermore, the seven asexual strains of <em>L. bostrychophila</em> including the published Beibei strain are more closely related to two other species of booklice, <em>L. paeta</em> and <em>L. sculptilis</em>, than to the sexual strains of <em>L. bostrychophila</em>. Our results revealed highly divergent mt genomes in the booklouse, <em>L. bostrychophila</em>, and indicated that <em>L. bostrychophila</em> is a cryptic species.</p> Shiqian Feng Qianqian Yang Hu Li Fan Song Václav Stejskal George P. Opit Wanzhi Cai Zhihong Li Renfu Shao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-12 2018-11-12 463 1127 1130 10.5073/jka.2018.463.250 Proceedings of the12th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection (IWCSPP) in Berlin, Germany, October 7-11, 2018 https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/10958 Cornel S. Adler George Opit Benjamin Fürstenau Christina Müller-Blenkle Peter Kern Frank H. Arthur Christos G. Athanassiou Ricardo Bartosik James Campbell Maria Otilia Carvalho Watcharapol Chayaprasert Paul Fields Zhihong Li Dirk Maier Manoj Nayak Elias Nukenine Daniel Obeng-Ofori Thomas Phillips Jordi Riudavets James Throne Matthias Schöller Václav Stejskal Herbert Talwana Blaine Timlick Pasquale Trematerra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-12 2018-11-12 463 3 1130 10.5073/jka.2018.463.000