Cross-contamination of oilseeds by insecticide residues during storage
AbstractPesticide residues are found in oilseeds (rapeseed and sunflower) and crude oils: they are mainly organophosphate insecticides (pirimiophos-methyl, malathion when authorized) used in empty storage facilities and for direct application to stored cereal grain. Even if some secondary pests are found in stored oilseeds, French regulations do not allow use of these insecticides on stored oilseeds. These residues arise from cross-contamination from storage bins and grain handling equipment of grain stores, and not from illegal use. This uptake of insecticide residues from their storage environment by oilseeds may lead to residue contents that exceed regulatory limits. A three-year investigation in grain storage companies allowed us to follow the course of sunflower batches and rapeseed batches during storage seasons 2006-2007, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, from reception at the storage facility to outloading. Each of these batches was sampled at outloading, and was analyzed for insecticide residues. Traceability of oilseeds established by grain-store managers allowed us to identify cross-contamination sources. The insecticides that were most commonly detected were pirimiophos-methyl, malathion, and dichlorvos (in sunflower 2006-2007), plus chlorpyriphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Pirimiophos-methyl was the most commonly detected active substance, and caused the most cases of non-accordance with regulatory levels in rapeseed. Cross-contamination could have occurred when cereal grains were treated upon receipt, when rapeseed was also delivered, especially when treatments were done systematically to the cereal grains. For sunflower, the main cross-contamination hazard resulted from treatment of cereals at the period of receipt or at their outloading, just before sunflower seeds batches were outloaded. Another situation led to cross-contamination, but generally at a lower extent: oilseeds stored in bins that contained previously treated cereals, or loaded in empty bins with handling equipment treated before the receipt of oilseeds.
Keywords: Oilseed storage, Cross-contamination, Insecticide residues, Rapeseed, Sunflower
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