Three-dimensional approach for identification of red grape cultivars by fingerprint of wine anthocyanins
The authenticity of grape cultivars is an important tool for wine controlling systems. The identification of red grape cultivars by wine anthocyanin spectra is a well-known method, but the analysis of applied parameters does not produce exact results. This work aimed at identifying substantive parameters, which, if applied simultaneously, will allow identifying numerous cultivars with high certainty. Liquid chromatography has been applied to obtain anthocyanin profiles of single-cultivar red wines made of various cultivars. Ratios of the peak areas of individual anthocyanins were identified. The proportions of anthocyanins depend on many factors, but their constancy is predetermined genetically. Certain ratios of peak areas of individual anthocyanins can be estimated as constant and typical for concrete cultivars. Revealed combinations of three ratios were estimated as unique for each cultivar. Moreover, different clones of certain cultivars have different combinations of constant ratios. Analysed samples were distributed in groups according to the combination of constancies of three ratios manifested in chromatographic peaks. The three-dimensional model produced allows data distribution in different groups. Each group corresponds to individual cultivars or different clones of one cultivar. Their belonging to concrete groups makes it possible to efficiently identify unknown single-cultivar wines and detect forgery.
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