Rootstock and seasonal variations affect anthocyanin accumulation and quality traits of ‘Kyoho’ grape berries in subtropical double cropping system
Keywords:Vitis spp., 5C, 1202C, own-root, tropical viticulture
The double cropping system has been commercially adopted in subtropical viticulture regions. However, very limited information about rootstock and seasonal effects on berry quality traits are available for this unique production system. Developing ‘Kyoho’ berries from own-rooted vines and from vines on 5C and 1202C rootstocks were periodically sampled from veraison until harvest in two consecutive cropping cycles to document the potential seasonal influence on rootstock effects. Anthocyanin concentration in berry skin, total soluble solids content (TSS), and titratable acidity (TA) were analyzed. In both cropping cycles, own-rooted vines produced berries with the highest anthocyanin concentration while vines on 1202C produced berries with the lowest anthocyanin concentration among the three scion/rootstocks. Anthocyanin concentrations were not differentiated by the differential climate pattern between the summer and the winter cropping cycles. Berries of own-rooted ‘Kyoho’ and ‘Kyoho’/5C vines accumulated satisfactory and equal amount of TSS in both cropping cycles. 1202C rootstocks did not affect berry TSS in the summer cropping cycle but reduced TSS in the winter cropping cycle. Significant rootstock and seasonal effects on berry TA were detected. Own-rooted vines produced berries with the lowest TA while vines on 1202C produced berries with the highest TA among the three scion/rootstock combinations. TA of berries from the winter cropping cycle was significantly higher than that from the summer cropping cycle especially in ‘Kyoho’/1202C. Relationships between anthocyanins and TSS of developing berries after veraison properly fitted into a sigmoidal function regardless of rootstocks and cropping cycles. However, the duration of the initial lag phase, the onset and the trend of both quality triats in the increasing phase, and the presence and degree of the final lag phase in the relationship were all modulated by rootstocks and by seasonal variations.
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