Different water and light regimes affect ionome composition in grapevine (<i>Vitis vinifera</i> L.)
Keywords:'Aglianico', ionome, irradiance, irrigation, metals
Many inorganic cations play a major role in winemaking processes and wine quality. For this reason, chemistry at the elemental level ("ionomic") of the grape berry is of concern not only to the viticulturist, but also to the oenologist due to their direct impact on juice and must composition, which in turn affect wine quality. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of reduced irrigation and incident light (by means of micronized calcite) on the berry skin ionome of the Italian red grape 'Aglianico'. The study was carried out in a five-years-old vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. 'Aglianico') located in Southern Italy. Half of the plants (IRR) were drip irrigated, whereas the other half were not irrigated (NIR). Half of IRR and NIR plants were treated with Megagreen® micronized calcite. In all the treatments, plant water status and gas exchange were determined. The mean values of stem water potential (ψw) during the experiment were –1.02 and –1.10 MPa in IRR and NIR, respectively. The calcite treatments did not show changes in ψw values if compared to the untreated ones. The values of gas exchange were not statistically different among the four treatments. Grape berries were separated into three groups of mass, and the levels of macroelements, microelements and lanthanides were measured. Irrigation and calcite significantly affected macroelements distribution in all the three groups of mass, with Fe, Cu and Zn being significantly higher in the IRR and calcite-treated treatments. The effect of irrigation on the changes in microelement levels was significant for some elements. Calcite-treated vines showed higher mean values of Co, Cd, Hg and Pb. Regarding lanthanides, in calcite-untreated vines, irrigation determined significant decreases in average La, Ce, Nd, whereas in calcite-treated vines, increases in the mean concentrations of Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er and Yb were found. Generally, lanthanide levels did not change between calcite-treated and untreated vines, and in all the treatments Lu resulted to be the most abundant one. Macroelements, microelements and lanthanide levels generally decreased with decreasing berry weight. The dynamics of the extractability of metals from grape berries to must during fermentation could be used to predict wine quality during the following processes and for wine traceability purposes.
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