<i>In vitro</i> propagation of four Iranian grape varieties: Influence of genotype and pretreatment with arbuscular mycorrhiza
There is a great demand for table grape saplings, mainly for commercial varieties indicating that micropropagation could be an effective method for their mass propagation. Internal contamination in woody plant species is an important problematic issue and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been known as potential plant biological protectors. In the present study, the glasshouse grown mother plants of four grape varieties ('Asgari', 'Khalili', 'Keshmeshi', and 'Shahroudi') were inoculated with AMF as pre-treatment. The fungi strains were Glomus mosseae, G. fasciculatum, G. intraradices and a mixture of all three species. The comparative in vitro performance of these genotypes was evaluated following optimization of in vitro growth conditions for each genotype. Furthermore, the positive effect of AMF inoculation of stock plant on micropropagation process was studied. Changes in biochemical features (total chlorophylls, total phenols and total sugars), growth parameters (root length and total leaf area) and in vitro behavior of AMF pretreated as well as control explants were recorded. The mycorrhizal association with grapevine roots was confirmed following root staining and evaluation of colonization rate. The results revealed a distinct difference and clear genotypic effect on various in vitro parameters of studied grape genotypes. The utilized inocula were found to have the capability of mycorrhizal association with grapevine roots, leading to enhancing phenolics as a defense mechanism, increasing sugars and chlorophyll and finally growth of whole plant corresponding to the grape variety and AMF strain. These results confirmed that health and physiological conditions of the stock plants are important parameters for in vitro grape culture establishment and suggest the integration of mycorrhizal technology with tissue culture to accomplish better results.
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