Conservation value of the native Hungarian wild grape (<i>Vitis sylvestris</i> Gmel.) evaluated by microsatellite markers
Keywords:Vitis sylvestris, SSR, genetic diversity, NJ tree, conservation value
Wild grape (Vitis sylvestris GMEL.) has became a highly threatened species in Europe because of habitat loss, competition with alien grape species and intensive forest exploitation. Twenty-three Vitis spp. samples were analysed at 8 microsatellite loci to estimate the genetic diversity of the natural Vitis sylvestris specimens. In order to analyse the morphological traits and to perform molecular analysis, 11 native individuals were sampled from 6 remnant Hungarian habitats of the wild grape. To compare the genetic relationships among the wild specimens, samples from Turkish habitats, as well as cultivars of Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca and Vitis riparia were also included. Genetic diversity was higher within the Hungarian wild grape locations, with a mean of He = 0.74, which was higher that of samples originating from a larger area of Turkey, He = 0.69. Most of the Hungarian samples formed a well-defined, separate branch on the NJ tree. Based on the morphological traits and molecular analysis on the territory of Szentendre Island, formerly considered to be one of the largest native locations of wild grape, interspecific hybrids of Vitis sylvestris and Vitis riparia were identified. It can be concluded from the results that most of the Hungarian habitats studied could be valuable for the conservation. This paper reports on Hungarian Vitis sylvestris habitats, providing the first genetic study on diversity and on the relationship of Vitis sylvestris to other Vitis specimens, wild or cultivated, in the central part of the Carpathian Basin.
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