Occurrence and specificity of glucose oxidase (E.C: 220.127.116.11) in botrytized sweet white wine. Comparison with laccase (E.C: 18.104.22.168), considered as the main responsible factor for oxidation in this type of wine
Two types of oxidizing enzymes are present in botrytized white grapes and wines: laccase (PPO) and glucose oxidase (GOX). The evolution of these two enzymes is similar both during the over-ripening of grapes and during wine making. Yet, PPO is severely inhibited by the addition of SO2 following the alcoholic fermentation, and shows a marked instability in both the must and wine environments. GOX, however, remains free and active in solution and helps develop the main characteristics of the wine. In particular, as is to be expected from its activity, GOX oxidizes tartaric acid, ethanol and glycerol, the major components of must and wine, respectively to glyoxylic acid, acetaldehyde and glyceraldehyde. And then, by nucleophilic additions under acidic conditions, these products react with catechins and proanthocyanidins to form several new compounds, some of which appear in a colored form. These reactions can have an impact on the visual quality of the wine.
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