Highly variable AFLP and S-SAP markers for the identification of ‘Malbec’ and ‘Syrah’ clones
The retrotransposon-based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (S-SAP) and the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker systems were used to assess the clonal variation of 14 ‘Syrah’ and 22 ‘Malbec’ (Vitis vinifera L.) clones. The utility of S-SAP markers was compared to that of AFLP markers. On the basis of our results, S-SAP is more informative marker system and showed higher average number of polymorphic bands per cultivar group than AFLP. Relationships among clones were analyzed by cluster analysis using unweighted pair-groups using arithmetic averages and in both cases revealed well defined groups of clones, in which ‘Malbec’ clones were separated from ‘Syrah’ clones. High variability of some clones could also be seen within these clusters. The different levels of polymorphism for ‘Malbec’ and ‘Syrah’ obtained in this study suggest that ‘Malbec’ exhibits a higher mutation frequency than ‘Syrah’. Our results indicate that higher proportion of polymorphic bands in S-SAP makes it a less labour-intensive and more efficient approach for developing markers for clonal identification.
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