Characterization of the production regions of Chardonnay wines by analysis of free amino acids

  • Virginie Carnevillier
  • P. Schlich
  • Jocelyne Guerreau
  • Claudine Charpentier
  • M. Feuillat
Keywords: free amino acids, wine, Chardonnay, Canonical Variate Analysis and Flash Table


Foe amino acids in 62 Chardonnay varietal wines, originating from Australia, Argentina, South Africa, Switzerland, United States and France (Pays d'Oc, Chablis, Pouilly-Fuisse and Cote de Beaune) were analyzed. They were differentiated according to the region of production using analysis of variance, Flash Table and Canonical Variate Analysis. Wines produced in the Pays d'Oc were identified by the presence of proline, while arginine and alanine served to identify Swiss wines. Chablis wines were characterized by 16 out of 20 major amino acids analyzed. Differences were correlated with climate and therefore with maturity at harvest. However, grape maturity alone did not explain the differences between wines. These differences were also correlated with the latitude of countries. Wines from Australia, Argentina and South Africa were not easily to differentiate. Gate de Beaune wines were distinguished from other Burgundy wines (Chabris, Pouilly-Fuisse), which can be explained by wine ageing on the lees after alcoholic fermentation for 4-6 months.