Egg development and toxicity of insecticides to eggs, neonate larvae and adults of <i>Xylotrechus arvicola</i>, a pest in Iberian grapevines
Xylotrechus arvicola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a xylophagous species that is becoming an important pest in vineyards in the Iberian Peninsula. The most sensitive stages are adult and egg, but their neonate larvae can also be attacked during the first 24 h after hatching and before entering the wood. Adults were evaluated for seven days against the insecticides spinosad, Beauveria bassiana, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos and neonate larvae (< 24 h) and eggs of different ages against the described insecticides, as well as flufenoxuron and pyriproxyfen. All insecticides were applied in a Potter tower at a maximum and minimum commercial dose, and showed significant differences both among insecticides as between the applied doses. Most of the hatching occurs eight days after oviposition by X. arvicola females. Chlorpyrifos had a quick and total control of eggs of different ages, neonate larvae and adults in both dosis applied, but its effectiveness could cause serious effects on other non-target species. Pyriproxifen and flufenoxuron had the best ovicidal control when the age of eggs increases and, B. bassiana also had a good ovicidal control, due its capacity to invade the eggs actively through their shell and proliferate inside them. Biological insecticides such as B. bassiana and spinosad, with a total control on adults and good rates of mortality of neonate larvae and eggs can be a great instrument to biological control of this pest.
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