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Didymella sidae-hermaphroditae sp. nov., a new pathogen on Sida hermaphrodita (L.) Rusby

Didymella sidae-hermaphroditae sp. nov., ein neues Pathogen an Sida hermaphrodita (L.) Rusby

Gerhard Bedlan
Institute
Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, Institute for Sustainable Plant Production, Vienna, Austria

Journal für Kulturpflanzen, 68 (5). S. 130–133, 2016, ISSN 1867-0911, DOI: 10.5073/JfK.2016.05.03, Verlag Eugen Ulmer KG, Stuttgart

Correspondence
Univ.-Doz. Dr. Gerhard Bedlan, Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, Institute for Sustainable Plant Production, Spargel­feldstraße 191, 1220 Vienna, Austria, E-Mail: gerhard.bedlan@ages.at
Accepted
28 January 2016

Abstract

Didymella sidae-hermaphroditae sp. nov., a new species collected on Sida hermaphrodita (L.) Rusby, differs from other species of Didymella on this host and other Malvaceae in many cases in the diameter of the pycnidia and in length and width of the conidia.

Key words: Didymella sidae-hermaphroditae sp. nov., Sida hermaphrodita, Virginia mallow, symptoms, systematics, new species

Zusammenfassung

Didymella sidae-hermaphroditae sp. nov., eine neue Art an Sida hermaphrodita (L.) Rusby, unterscheidet sich von anderen Arten der Gattung Didymella auf diesem Wirt und anderen Malvaceae häufig im Durchmesser der Pyknidien und in Länge und Breite der Konidien.

Stichwörter: Didymella sidae-hermaphroditae sp. nov., Sida hermaphrodita, Virginiamalve, Symptome, Systematik, neue Art

Introduction

On the species Sida only Ascochyta sidae Sawada, a non valide name, is known. In the family of the Malvaceae many species of the asexual state of Didymella are known (s. Table 1), but none of them on Sida hermaphrodita. In June 2015 a new species of Didymella was collected on living leaves of Sida hermaphrodita in Lower Austria.

Table 1. Ascochyta species on Malvaceae (in chronological order) according to the original descriptions

Species

Host plant
and remarks

Diameter
of the pycnidia
in μm

Length
of
conidia in
μm

Width
of
conidia
in μm

Characteristics
of the conidia

Ascochyta malvicola Sacc. (Saccardo, 1878)

Malva sylvestris

Dot-like, lens-shaped, perforated

20

4

Hyaline, short cylindrical, on both ends rounded, mildly constricted at the
sep­tum, 1-septate,
minute 4-guttulate.

Ascochyta althaeina Sacc. & Bizz. (Saccardo and Bizzozero, 1884)

Althaea officinalis

Dot-like, black

12.5–14

3

Hyaline, 1-septate, nearly fusiform.

Ascochyta althaeina Sacc. et Bizz. var. brun­neo-cincta Passerini (Brunaud, 1886)

Althaea officinalis

 

10

3.5
3.5

Elliptical to oblong, 1-septate.

Ascochyta alceina Lambotte & Fautrey (Fautrey, 1899)

Alcea rosea

 

7–10

3 (-4)

Nearly cylindrical or oblong, on both ends rounded, first one-celled then 1-septate, not constricted at the
septum.

Ascochyta montene­­grina Bubák
(Bubák, 1903)

Malva silvestris

Lens-shaped
50–160

6–13
Very frequent­ly
9–11

3–4.5

Hyaline, short cylindrical, 1-septate at the midth and mildly constricted at the septum, on both ends rounded.

Ascochyta malvae
H. Zimm.
(Zimmermann, 1909)

Malva neglecta

Epiphyll, sparse, near­ly covered, 150–200

At first 6–9, after­wards 8–9

At first 3–4, after­wards 3.5

At first cylindrical or ovoid, afterwards cylindrical and in the midth
constrict­ed, 1-septate.

Ascochyta abutilonis Hollós (Hollós, 1909)

Abutilon avicenne

Epiphyll, 140–190

8–9

3–4

Hyaline, elliptical-fusiform, at first one-celled, afterwards
1-septate, not constricted at the
septum.

Ascochyta malvae Died. 1912 (Diedicke, 1915)

Homonym
Malva alcea

Epiphyll,
cov­ered

7–10

3–4

Nearly cylindrical or oblong-ellpsoid, on both ends rounded,
1-septate, non constricted at the
septum.

Ascochyta gossypii Woron. (1915)
(Woron­ichin, 1914)

= non Phoma gossypii Sacc. (Saccardo, 1880)
= Phoma gossypiicola
Gruyter (Gruy­ter, 2002)
on Gossypium spp.

 

12(–14)

8

Hyaline, straight or slightly curved,
cy­lindrical to ovoid, 1-septate, not
con­stricted at the septum, rounded
at both ends.

Ascochyta gossypii Syd. (Sydow et al., 1916)

= Homonym zu Ascochyta gossypii Woron.
Gossypium spp. (cult.)
in Kaschmir

80–100

8–10

1.5–4

Hyaline, oblong or shortly cylindrical, on both ends rounded, at the midth
or nearly at the midth with a septum, not or scarcely constricted.

Ascochyta abelmoschi Harter (Harter, 1918)

Abelmoschus esculentus

65–225

4–14

2.1–4.5

Hyaline, cylindrical to ovoid, straight or curved, first one-celled, afterwards
1-septate and constricted at the
septum, on both ends rounded, guttulate.

Ascochyta abutilonis Khokhr.
(Tranzschel et al., 1933)

Homonym zu Ascochyta abutilonis Hollós

Ascochyta hibisci-can­nabini Khokhr. (Tranzschel et al., 1933)

Hibiscus cannabinum
(in Rossia)

Epiphyll, 180

5–10

2.5–4.5

Hyaline, cylindrical, on both ends rounded, first one-celled, afterwards
1-septate.

Ascochyta abutilonico­la Massenot
(Masse­not, 1951)

Abutilon striatus

100–140

16–29

5–7

Hyaline, 1-septate, rarely non or
2-sep­tate, elliptical-oblong, at the ends roundish or obtuse, constricted, with granules, not or with 2 or
pluri-guttu­late.

Ascochyta sidae Sawada (Sawada, 1959)

Sida acuta
non valide

90–195

5–9

3–4

Hyaline, elliptical or ovoid, 1-septate.

Ascochyta urenae Sawada (Sawada, 1959)

Urena lobata var. tomento­sa
non valide

125–150

4–8

3–4

Hyaline, elliptical to oblong, rounded at both ends, 1-septate, rarely asep­tate, constricted at septum, smooth.

Ascochyta althaeina Sacc. et Bizz. var. kitai­beliana Mititiuc & Manoliu
(Manoliu and Mititiuc, 1976)

Kitaibela vitifolia
= Asco­chyta althaeina Sacc.

 

7–12

2–2.5

Cylindrical, not elliptical.

Methods

For the determination of the fungus the usual mycological routine methods of light microscopy were adopted. Pycinidia and conidia of the fungus were stained with Wittmann’s Blue (Wittmann, 1970). Both have been measured using the programme labSens by Olympus.

Results

The conidia of the new species differ in length and width from the other species on Sida and other Malvaceae (s. Table 1).


The diameter of the pycnidia of the new species varies from 66.4–144.87 μm with an average of 94.87 μm. The ostioles measure 11.13–24.97 μm (average 16.78 μm). The conidia are 5.73–11.31 μm long (average 8.11 μm) and 1.77–3.15 μm wide (average 2.62 μm) and show one septum in the midth of the conidia.

Comments to the nomenclature of the above mentioned species

Mel‘nik (2000) combined A. althaeina Sacc. & Bizz., A. althaeina Sacc. & Bizz. var. major Brunaud, A. alceina Lambotte & Fautrey, A. montenegrina Bubák, A. malvae H. Zimm., A. abutilonis Hollós, A. malvae Died., A. gossypii Woron., A. gossypii Syd., A. malvarum Mig., A. hibisci-cannabini Khokhr., A. sidae Sawada, A. urenae Sawada to one species, namely Ascochyta malvicola Sacc. But in the two repositories Index Fungorum and Mycobank all of the above mentioned species are valid and legitimate.

The name of the variety brunneocincta in Ascochyta altheina Sacc. et Bizz. var. brunneocincta is according to the protologue hyphenated to brunneo-cincta and the author of the variety is not Brunaud but Passerini.

In the repositories Index Fungorum and Mycobank Asco­chyta gossypii Woron. and Ascochyta gossypii Syd. & Syd. are homonyms. But only Ascochyta gossypii Syd. & Syd. is a homonym to Ascochyta gossypii Woron. and besides in the protologue only Syd. is the author.

Ascochyta gossypii Syd. differs from Ascochyta gossypii Woron. for which is now the current name Phoma gossypiicola Gruyter published (Gruyter, 2002) and therefore it should be given a new name to A. gossypii Syd.:

Ascochyta gossypiicola Bedlan nom. nov.

Index Fungorum IF552103

Ascochyta gossypii Syd.

Didymella sidae-hermaphroditae Bedlan sp. nov.

Index Fungorum IF552102

On the upper sides of the leaves brown roundish shaped spots with dark brown margins (Fig. 1). Conidiomata (pycnidia) on the upper side of the leaf spots (Fig. 2). Pycnidia semi-immersed, brown to dark brown, globose, 66.4–144.87 μm diameter (average 94.87 μm). The ostioles measure 11.13–24.97 μm (average 16.78 μm) (Fig. 3).

bilder/jfk_2016_05_bedlan_bld-001.jpg

Fig. 1. Symptoms on upper side of leaf.

bilder/jfk_2016_05_bedlan_bld-002.jpg

Fig. 2. Pycnidia on a leaf spot.

bilder/jfk_2016_05_bedlan_bld-003.jpg

Fig. 3. Pycnidia (stained with Wittmann’s Blue).

The conidia are hyaline, oblong-cylindrical, rounded at the ends, 5.73–11.31 μm long with an average of 8.11 μm and 1.77–3.15 μm wide with an average of 2.62 μm and 1 septum in the midth, not constricted at the septum. Young conidia aseptate (Fig. 4). At few conidia one cell is a little bit longer and some are slightly flexuose.

bilder/jfk_2016_05_bedlan_bld-004.jpg

Fig. 4. Conidia (stained with Wittmann’s Blue).

On living leaves of Sida hermaphrodita (L.) Rusby.

Type: Austria, Zinsenhof (Lower Austria, district of Melk). On living leaves of Sida hermaphrodita (L.) Rusby, 22 June 2015, leg. et det. G. Bedlan (holotype, hb W).

The type specimen has been deposited at the department of Botany, Natural History Museum, Vienna (hb W).

Etymology: The new species found on Sida hermaphrodita is named after the host where it has been found.*

Acknowledgement

Thanks are due to Alain Lepretre, Julius Kühn-Institut (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants in Berlin, for providing original literature.

References

Brunaud, P., 1886: Sphaeropsidées nouvelles, rares ou critiques aux environs de Saintes. Revue Mycologique Toulouse 8, p. 141.

Bubák, F., 1903: Ein Beitrag zur Pilzflora von Montenegro. Sitzungsberichte der Königlichen Böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, p. 18.

Diedicke, H., 1915: Pilze: Sphaeropsideae, Melanconieae. Krypto­gamen-Flora der Mark Brandenburg 9 (5), p. 391.

Fautrey, F., 1899: Espèces nouvelles de la Côte-d’Or. Bulletin de la Société Mycologique de France 15, p. 153.

Gruyter, J. de, 2002: Contributions towards a monograph of Phoma (Coelomycetes) – IX, Section Macrospora. Persoonia Vol. 18, Part 1, p. 96.

Harter, L.L., 1918: Hitherto unreported disease of okra. Journal of Agricultural Research 14, p. 207.

Hollós, L., 1909: Új gombák Kecskemét vidékérol. VI. Annales Histo­rico-Natureles Musei Nationalis Hungarici 7, p. 53.

Manoliu, A.I., M. Mititiuc, 1976: Recherches sur les micromycètes de la Roumanie. Feddes Repertorium 87 (1-2), p. 143.

Massenot, M., 1951: Quelques Micromycètes maculicoles parasites d’arbustes ornementaux. Revue de Pathologie végétale et d’Entomologie agricole de France T. XXX, No. 4, p. 206.

Mel‘nik, V.A., 2000: Key to the fungi of the genus Ascochyta Lib. (Coelomycetes). Mitt. Biol. Bundesanst. Land-Forstwirtsch., Berlin-Dahlem Heft 379, 192 S.

Saccardo, P.A., 1878: Fungi Veneti novi vel critici vel mycologiae Venetae addendi. Series VII., p. 161.

Saccardo, P.A., 1880: Fungorum Extra-Europaeorum pugillus. Michelia 2 (6), p. 144.

Saccardo, P.A., G. Bizzozero, 1884: Fungi gall. 6, no. 2240.

Sawada, K., 1959: Descriptive Catalogue of Taiwan (Formosan) Fungi, Part XI, p. 152.

Sydow, H., P. Sydow, E.J. Butler, 1916: Fungi Indiae orientalis pars V. Annales Mycologici 14 (3-4), p. 194.

Tranzschel, W., L.S. Gutner, M.K. Khokhriakov, 1933: Spisok gribov wstretschaju shchihsia na nowyh culturnyh priadilnyh rastenijah. Trudy Instituta Novogo Lubyanogo Syr’ya. Moscow Vol. 1, 127-140.

Wittmann, W., 1970: Ein neues Rezept zur Herstellung mykologischer Präparate. PflSchber. Bd. 41, Heft 5/6/7, 91-94.

Woronichin, N.N., 1914: Srisok gribov sobrannykh Sochinskom okrug Ly’tom 1913 goda. Vestnik Tiflissk. Bot. Sada. 35, p. 25.

Zimmermann, H., 1909: Verzeichnis der Pilze aus der Umgebung von Eisgrub. Verhandlungen des Naturforschenden Vereines in Brünn 47, p. 94.


Footnotes:

*  

The plants of Sida hermaphrodita originated from a field belonging to the project “Sida: Intelligent Densified Energy Carriers for Austria (SIDecA)”, financed by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund (KLI.EN) and carried out in the context of the program “e!MISSION.at”

ISSN (elektronisch): 1867-0938
ISSN (print): 1867-0911
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