S-Abscisic acid, 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid and indole-3-acetic acid treatments modify grape (<i>Vitis vinifera</i> L. 'Cabernet Sauvignon') hormonal balance and wine quality
The phenolic composition of red wine strongly determines its quality. Even when the applications of plant growth regulator (PGR) affect grape quality, there is almost no information on the effect of these treatments on the grape’s internal hormonal balance and the wine composition and quality. In the present study, changes in the internal hormonal content following the application of (+)-S-abscisic acid (S-ABA), 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at veraison were examined to determine their effects on 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapes and wine composition in a plants in containers experiment and in a commercial vineyard experiment. Applied PGRs had a significant effect on the hormonal balance and phenolic composition of grape skins. The S-ABA-treated grapes showed a significantly higher skin internal free abscisic acid concentration in the plants in container experiment and the CEPA-treated grapes showed a reduction in skin internal IAA concentration in the commercial vineyard experiment. Winemaking was performed in the commercial vineyard experiment. Wine’s chemical composition was affected by these treatments and an up-to 63 % increase in malvidin-3-glucoside concentration and an up-to 70 % increase in total tannin concentration were found in wines made from the CEPA-treated grapes. The alcohol content was 10.3 % higher (from 12.6 to 13.9 % v v-1) in wines made from the CEPA-treated grapes. No significant differences in the wine sensory attributes (aroma and mouth-feel) between the control and the PGR-treated wines were identified by a sensory panel.
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