Flavour compounds of clones from different grape varieties
Keywords:must, wine, flavour, terpene, analysis, sensory rating, statistics, selection, clone, variety of vine, Germany, Italy
AbstractThe selection of highly productive and characteristic clones is essential for the maintenance and improvement of the viticultural and commercially valuable qualities of certain grape varieties. In the future, this very difficult and time consuming selection of adapted clones will be supplemented with more precise analytical techniques. In this regard, GC analysis will be most valuable.
Analytically, German white wines can be divided into three groups by the content of only a few monoterpene compounds ('terpene profiles'): 'Riesling', 'Muscat' and 'Sylvaner' or 'Weissburgunder' types. Furthermore, the use of linear discriminant analysis on some components allows the differentiation within types (e. g. for 'Riesling'-tpye: Riesling, Müller-Thurgau, Bacchus, Kerner, Ehrenfelser, Scheurebe).
Till now no significant differentiation could be made from flavour compounds of Riesling clones, although clear differences can be perceived between wines from Traminer clones. Wines with a low sensory appraisal typically have a low content of monoterpene compounds.
Differences can also be recognized in the aroma profiles of Chardonnay clones, allowing an analytical differentiation between aromatic and non-aromatic types. Certain clones, however, show differing compositions of flavour compounds when grown in different areas (clones with an 'unstable' aromatic character).
Also during ripening of the berries, differences occur within individual Chardonnay clones, resulting in a few clones having recognizable ripening curves for monoterpene compounds.
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