Mineral composition of hypogeous fungi in Hungary
AbstractIn the course of the work, 93 samples from 17 hypogeous fungus species belonging to 6 genera were taken from various habitats in Hungary and were analysed for the concentrations of 22 elements using the inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy ICP method. All the measurements were made in three independent replications.
The data were compared with the element contents of 625 epigeous fungi, previously determined using the same method. For all the genera, the elements present in the highest concentrations on a dry matter basis were potassium (6990-29590 ppm) and phosphorus (3400-9140 ppm). These were followed by the macroelements calcium (330-2190 ppm), magnesium (810-1000 ppm) and sodium (110-2990), and the microelements aluminium (30-450 ppm), zinc (60-340 ppm), iron (30-120 ppm) and copper (25-75 ppm), in different orders for each genus.
Until now the element contents of fungi have mostly been analysed to determine the nutritional value of edible fungi, and the data on other elements for instance total minerals are insuffi cient for further comparisons (MATTILA et al., 2001).
Very little work has been published on the mineral contents of hypogeous large fungi, despite the fact that these include commercially important species such as Tuber aestivum and T. melanosporum (IAN et al., 2003). Most of the previous papers exhibited the following characteristics: (1) some species (e.g. Terfezia species, Tuber melanosporum) were investigated more frequently, and others rarely, if at all; (2) the analyses concentrated chiefly on toxicological and/or environmental aspects; (3) measurements were only made on a few elements (important from the nutritional point of view); (4) only cultivated fungi were included in the studies. The aim of the present work was to determine the element contents of various species of hypogeous fungi in order to answer the following questions: (1) Which characteristic differences can be observed between the element contents of hypogeous and epigeous fungi? (2) Which differences characterise the element contents of various genera of hypogeous fungi? (3) Is there any signifi cant difference between the element contents of hypogeous Ascomycota and Basidiomycota genera? (4) Can any significant difference be observed between the element contents of edible and non-edible hypogeous fungi?
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