The <i>in vitro</i> antioxidative and cytotoxic effects of selected <i>Salvia</i> species water extracts
The current paper presents antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and total phenolic and flavonoid content of the selected species of genus Salvia (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Macedonia (S. jurisicii Košanin, S. amplexicaulis Lam., S. ringens Sibth. & Sm.) and Libya (S. fruticosa Mill. and S. lanigera Poir.). Crude water extracts, obtained from aerial parts, were yielded from 6.50 to 14.32%. Total phenolic content was the highest in water extracts of S. amplexicaulis and S. ringens (226.30 and 189.01 mg GAE/g, respectively), while the flavonoids were the most abundant in S. jurisicii extract (32.36 mg QE/g). Antioxidant activities of extracts were measured using DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. S. amplexicaulis and S. ringens extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity, measured using DPPH (14.21 and 23.44 μg/mL, respectively) and ABTS assays (2.91 and 2.42 mg AAE/g, respectively). In FRAP assay, S. amplexicaulis and S. fruticosa extracts exhibited strongest activity (1406.73 and 1191.51 µmol Fe(II)/g). Water extract of S. amplexicaulis and S. ringens performed the strongest cytotoxic activity against K562 cells (151.07 and 173.06 μg/mL, respectively). Based on these findings, it can be concluded that S. amplexicaulis and S. ringens water extracts could be considered as possible source of antioxidant and cytotoxic agents.
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