Inhibitory activity of <i>Athyrium sinense</i> extracts against <i>Clavibater michiganense</i> subsp. <i>sepedonicum</i>
Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum, the causal agent of a serious disease called bacterial ring rot of potato, is widespread under both greenhouse and field cultivation. In order to find a promising method for the control of this disease, Athyrium sinense extracts were investigated in the study presented here. Results showed that the A. sinense extracts had significantly inhibitory activity against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum. Eight organic solvents were used to obtain A. sinense extracts, and ethanol was selected as an ideal extraction solvent. Based on single factor experiment results and L273(13) orthogonal experiment results, optimum extraction conditions were obtained. They were A2B3C3, solid to liquid ratio 1:20 (g:mL), temperature 97°C and extraction time 10h. Stability assays revealed that Zn2+, Fe3+, acidic and neutral conditions enhanced inhibitory activity, and extracts were stable under ultraviolet (UV). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed drastic changes caused by A. sinense extracts, including lack of cytoplasmic materials, formation of vacuoles and bacterial deformation. These results revealed A. sinense extracts have strong inhibitory activity against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum, and can be used as a potent phytochemical fungicide.
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