Growth, heavy metal status and yield of salt-stressed wheat (<i>Triticum aestivum</i> L.) plants as affected by the integrated application of bio-, organic and inorganic nitrogen-fertilizers
Efforts have been made to use the integrated application of bio-, organic and inorganic nitrogen (N)-fertilizers to decrease waste accumulation, and to minimize nutrient losses and yield contamination with heavy metals for human nutrition and health. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of integrated applications of organic manures, bio-fertilizer and/or mineral-N fertilizers on growth, yield, some chemical constituents and shoot and yielded grain heavy metal contents of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Sakha 93) plants grown under salinity stress (ECe = 7.84 dS m-1). Results showed that, the treatment comprised of ⅓NH4NO3 (55 kg N ha-1) + Cerealine (bio-fertilizer; 4 Kg ha-1) + cattle manure (10 t ha-1) was found to be most effective, producing the best status of growth characteristics, osmoprotectants concentrations, essential nutrient contents, shoot heavy metal concentrations, and grain yield and its content of heavy metals compared to the all other treatments. The treatment comprised of Cerealine (4 Kg ha-1) + cattle manure (20 t ha-1) was occupied the second order. We can recommend to use the integrated treatment of ⅓NH4NO3 (55 kg N ha-1) + Cerealine (bio-fertilizer; 4 Kg ha-1) + cattle manure (10 t ha-1) effectively in saline soils to improve wheat growth and yield with minimum contents of heavy metals for human health and nutrition.
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