Variation in bioactive contents and anatomical characteristics of different fennel (<i>Foeniculum vulgare</i> Mill.) populations as affected by self-pollination
Keywords:anatomy, antioxidants, flavonoids
The production of self pollinated plant genotypes could be critical for improving medicinal plants. Pollination in Apiaceae family can also affect secondary metabolites. In this study, 23 fennel populations were used to assess the effect of self pollination on essential oil yield, antioxidant activity (based on three model system), total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC). First, some plant inflorescences were divided in two parts. Then the half was bagged and the second half was permitted for out crossing. The self and outcross pollinated seeds were sown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in three replicates. Results revealed that inbreeding led to increase in the secretary ducts number (9.36%) as well as essential oil yield (25.61%) in all fennel populations. Essential oil yield ranged from 2.4% to 6.4% in seeds produced via out crossing, while it varied from 3.5% to 6.5% in self pollinated ones. Furthermore, self pollination increased TPC (21.66%), TFC (49.40%) and antioxidant activity (6.23%). Among the populations derived from self pollinated seeds Tabriz showed the highest TFC (8.4 mgQUEg-1DW) and antioxidant activity (IC50=83.1μg/ml), whereas Semirom possessed the highest TPC (150 mgTAEg-1DW), respectively. In overall, self pollination can produce lead to the populations with higher amount of secondary metabolites.
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