Comparison of terpene and phenolic profiles of three wild species of Echeveria (Crassulaceae)
Echeveria species (Crassulaceae) are used in traditional medicine and some of their biological activities are demonstrated (e.g. antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer). However, their chemical composition has been scarcely studied. The methanol extracts (ME) of three Echeveria species (E. craigiana, E. kimnachii and E. subrigida) from Mexico were analyzed for the sterol (GC-MS) and phenolic (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn) composition. Eleven sterols were identified, E. kimnachii showed the highest total content (7.87 mg/g ME), and the main constituents were γ-sitosterol in E. craigiana (33.9%) and E. subrigida (54.4%), and lupenone in E. kimnachii (28.9%). The phenolic analysis showed differences among the Echeveria species, which contained flavonoids derivatives and tannins as the main components. The main flavonoids in E. craigiana were hexoside derivatives of quercetin and isorhamnetin, both with a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl substituent; in E. subrigida hexosides of isorhamnetin, quercetin and kaempferol; and E. kimnachii showed the greatest diversity including proanthocyanidins and less common flavonoid derivatives of kaempferol O,O-disubstituted by acyl derivatives. The characteristic phytochemicals of each studied Echeveria species could be responsible of its specific biological activities and useful as chemotaxonomic markers. The kaempferol derivatives in E. kimnachii are rare in nature and they will be isolated and characterized.
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